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238 Cards in this Set

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Scholars use this term to describe the cultural achievements of hte fourteenth through sixteenth centuries; those achievements rest on the economic and political developments of earlier centuries
Define the importance of the northern Italian cities.
The great commercial revival of the eleventh century was led by the northern Italian cities. They were important in shipmaking and in the wool trade. Scholars also believe that the first artistic and literary manifestations of the Renaissance began in Florence which was wealth because of its rich banking and mercantile families.
Sworn associations of free men seeking complete political and economic independence from local nobles. The merchent guilds that formed the communes build city walls, regulated trade, raised taxes, and kept civil order. Marriage in communes between rural nobility and mercantile aristocracy was common and formed a new class known as urban nobility.
a new force who were disenfranchised and heavily taxed, they bitterly resented their exclusion from power. Often they would use force and violence to take over the city governments in the communes.
oligarchies & signori
Signori were despots or one man rulers in 1300's while oligarchies were the rule of merchant aristocracies that ruled from 1300-1500's
princely courts
Where the political power and elite culture centered from the despots and oligarchies
During the fifteent century these five powers dominated the Italian peninsula.
Venice, Milan, Florence, the Papal States, kingdom of Naples
Venice [describe government & trade]
Venice had enormous trade and a vast colonial empire. Their government was a republic however oligarchy ruled.
Milan [government]
Was called a republic but despots of hte Sforza family ruled harshly and dominated the cities
Florence [government]
Called a republic but authority vested in several councils of state. Great power was held by the Medici family from 1434-1494
Papal States [government]
Was central Italy that had come under the sway of important Roman families including Pope Alexander VI who helped his son Cesare Borgia rest his papal authority.
Kingdom of Naples [government]
Was long disputed between the Aragonese and the French. In 1435 it was passed to Aragon.
balance of power
was established in the highly competitive powers in Italy. Where when one Italian city state gained to much power the others established a balance of power to control that state.
formation of modern diplomacy in Italy
was formed because of the constantly changing Italian allies where permanent embassies with resident ambassadors were made to consistantly monitor constant changes.
Why was Italian an easy target for invasion?
Italy had failed to form a common alliance against foreign enemies.
Girolamo Savonarola
was a Dominican friar who predicted the French invasion of Florence. He blamed the paganism and moral vice of the city along with the undemocratic nature and the corruption of Pope Alexander VI for the problems.
king Charles VIII
invaded Italy in 1494 and started a new period in Italian and European power politics. He controlled Flroence, Rome, and Naples.
League of Cambrai
The alliance that Charles VIII formedwith his cousin and heir Louis XII and with the pope and German emperor Maximilian in the purpose of stripping rich Venice of its possessions.
Pope Leo X
Was part of the League of Cambrai which he foudn to be a dnagerous alliance and he called on Spain and German to expel French from Italy
Habsburg-Valois War
The war between the French and the German dynasties after France had returend to Italy in 1521 after being earlier expelled.
Francesco Petrach
Was the first to realize that something new and unique was happening. He believed taht he was living at the start of a new age, a period of light after the Gothic Gloom. He believed he was witnessing an ew golden age of intellectual achievement ,a rebirth or, Renaissance
the emergence of many distincitive personalities who glorified their uniqueness. Italians of unusual abilities were self consciously aware of their singularity and unafraid to be difference. It stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and full development of one's capabilities, and talents.
Pope Nicholas V
A distinguished scholar who planed the Vatican library for the nine thousand manuscripts he had colected.
Pope Sixtus IV
Built the Vatican library which holds many ancient and medieval documents
the term used to describe the interest in the classics of Rome and Greek culture which as believed that anyone who wanted to be educated and civilized should know. Latin classics were studied to reveal more about human nature.
Pico dellla Mirandola
In his essay On the Dignity of Man he stressed taht man possesses great dignity because he as made as Adam in the image of God before the Fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. He believed man's place was between the beats and the angels.
involves the basic concern with the material world instead of with the eternal world of spirit. A secular way of thinking tends to find the ultimate explanation of everything and the final end of human beigns within the limits of what the senses can discover. They concentrated on the here and now.
Lorenzo Valla
Wrote the essay On Pleasure which defends hte pleasures of the senses as the highest good. He also is called
father of modern historical criticism" after his study On the False Donation of Constantine which examined an old document giving papacy jurisdiction as a fraud/
Florentine Giovanni Boccacio
Wrote The Decameron which describes ambitious merchnats, frairs, husbands-all portraying a more sensual, worldly society.
quattrocento and cinquecento
1400's & 1500's
"High Renaissance"
The period of the Renaissance where Rome was the center. The art was more classical, balanced, harmonious, and restraint. [1500-1527]
Who sponsored works of art during the Renaissance?
individuals and oligarchs
What was the significance of self portraits?
Showed that richer families were now spending more money on materialistic items and not afraid to hide it. Also showed individualism.
Was a Florence painter who led the way in using realism-treated the body in a more real manner instead of as stiff and artificial
Sculptor who expressed and appreciated human nature. He revived the classical figure of the human body with balance and self awareness
Florentine who was known as the "father of modern painting" inspired new realism and use of light and dark.
International Style
Was the style named because of the wandering careers of influential artisits, the close communications and rivalry of princely courts, and increased trade in works of arts.
Portrayed the male body in David and The Last Judgement as strong and heroic and glorified the body.
Filippo Brunelleschi and Perio della Francesca
Pioneered persepctive in painting-showed the linear representation of distance and space on a flat surface
What was the social status of the artist during the Renaissance?
The Renaissance artist was considered a free intellectual worker. They usually worked on commision and depended on rich patrons.
The Courtier
Written by Castiglione it sought to train, discipline, and fashion the young men into the courtly ideal gentlement. Castiglione believed that an educated man should be educated in broad academic subjects, spirtiaul and physically trained as well
Laura Cereta
Was a humanist author who illustrated the successes and failures of educated Renaissance woman.
What was the role of women during the Renaissance?
Women were supposed to grace her husbands household and know how to attract artist but never participate in public affairs. They could be educated in many languages but their main role was domestic duties.
The Prince
Was written by Niccolo Machiavelli and the main character was based on Cesare Borgia. The Prince was a book on political power on how a ruler should gain, maintain, and increase it. It was believed that a prince are allowed to manipulate power.
"It will naturally be answered that it woudl be desriable to be both the one and the other; but as it is difficult to be both at the same time, it is much more safe to be feared than to be loved, when you have to choose between the two."
Machiavelli asked if it is better to be feared or loved
Ideas of Machiavelli
Permanent social order reflecting God's will cannot be established and politics has its own laws and ought to be a science
What did Johann Gutenberg, Johann Fust, and Peter Schoffer develop?
The movable printing press
What were the effects of the movable printing press?
Propaganda, creation of books, pamphlets, pornography
What was the significance of the clock?
The measure of time helped quantify the work day for city people.
What was the status of upper class women during the Renaissance?
Thier power declined as they had no political power and were forced in domestic affairs
On the Family
Written by Leon Battista Alberti who stressed that a wife's role should be restricted to the oderliness of the household, food and serving of the meals, education of children, and supervision of servants.
Instruction of the Christian Women
Written by Juan Luis which held that a woman's sphere should be the home not thep ublic arena where she might compete with men
Sir Thomas Smith
"those whom nature hath made to keepe home and to nourish the families and children, and not to meddle with affairs abroad."
During the time of the Renaissance what was the consequence of rape?
Rape wasnt considered a serious crime
Term used to describe sexual acts between people of same sex. Sexual acts against nature means any acts not leading to conception.
During the fourteenth century which countries dominated the Mediterranean slave trade
Genoa and Venice
Why would many African kings sell slaves?
They woud sell slaves in exchange for new weapons, money, and goods
How were blacks percieved before the sixteenth century in Europe?
Were seen as barbaric and evil
How did the Northern Renasissance differ from the Italian Renaissance
Focused more on biblical and early Christian themes & had broad social reforms based on Christian ideals
What did northern humanists believe about human nature?
Although human nature had been corrupted by sin it was fundamentally good and capable of improvement through education.
Thomas More
Englishman who wrote Utopia which was an island where chidlren recieved a good education and there is equality. More believed that the basic problems in society were caused by greed and by private property
Desiderius Erasmus
His work showed two themes: education is the means to reform and the key to moral and intellectual improvements. Also Christianity is the inner attitude of the heart or spirit.
Francois Rabelais
Was a French humanist which possesed a distinctly secular flavor.
Justinian Code
"What pleases the prince has the force of law"
Charles VII
Revised the monarchy and France. He reconciled the Burgundians and Armagnacs.He also strenghthened royal revenue through gabelle [tax on slat] and taille [land tax] He created the first standing army.
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
Published by Charles VII it asserted the superiority of a general council over the papacy giving the French crown control over appointing bishops and depriving the pope of French ecclesiastical revenues.
Louis XI
Son of Charles VII and known as "Spider King" he promoted new industries and entered commerical treaties with England, Portugal, and Hnaseatic League. He used severe taxation to improve hisarmy and cut into urban indepenence. He invaded Burgundy and married Anne of Brittany
Concordat of Bologna
Rescinded the Pragmatic Snaction and gave the pope the right to recieve the first years income of new bisops and abbots while the French king could choose the bishops and abbots
War of Roses
War between the aristocratic family of the York [white] and Lancaster [red] The war hurt trade, agriculture, and domestic industry. Eventually Edward IV of the Yorks established domestic tranquility.
What was the role of Edward IV, Richard III, and Henry VII in the English monarchy?
Worked together as the Tudor to restore royal prestige, crush power of nobility, and establish law anod order after the War of the Roses
What was the significance of cutting off Parliament?
Parliament was the only group able to control taxations and by controlling spending the monarchy didnt have to rely on Parliament
Royal Council
Was the council the King of England trusted to handle executive, legislative, and judicial business.
court of Star Chamber
council who dealth with real or ptotential aristocratic threats through using Roman law principles
justices of the peace
unpaid local offices who the Tudors hired [because the English monarchy had no stnading army or civil service bureaucracy]
Henry VII
Rebuilt the English monarchy and encouraged the cloth industry and built English merchant marine. Crushed invasion of Ireland and secured peace with Scotland. [1485-1509]
Describe Spain's government during the Renaissance.
Spain remained a conglomerate of independent kingdoms
The marriage of which king and queen greatly affected Spanish politics?
Kind Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile
How did Ferdinand and Isabella curb the rebellious aristocrats?
Through hermandades or brotherhoods which acted as local police. THey also restructured the royal council and excluded nobility. They appointed peple from the middle class and took power from the church.
Describe the attitude that the Spanish felt towards the Jews leaving in Spain.
The Christian kings had renewed Jewish rights and privilages and the Jews made up much of the mercantile class. However by the fourteenth century anti-Semitism had rose in Spain and many were killed or forced to convert
New Christians
The term used to describe the Jewish population in Spain who had converted
Why did King Ferdinand expel the Jews, even though he wasnt super religous?
He wanted to appear as a moral and devout Christian. He feared of urban rioting and disorder caused by the hatred of the New Christians. If he protected them he would lose support.
What was the cause of the anti-Semetic feelings from the crown and the nobility?
The crown and nobility felt that the Jews and New Christians were planning on taking over public offices
What were the three things critics of the Church attacked?
clerical immorality, clerical ignorance, and pluralism/absenteeism
What were some examples of clerical immorality?
Neglect on the rule of celibacy, clerical drunkeness, gambling, indulgences on dress
Describe the education of many priests?
Many times priests couldn't read or write. They also were barely educated.
Pluralism & Absenteeism
Pluralism is holding on to more then one office. Absenteeism is not taking on the responsibilities or taking care of your office
In most countries [except England] which members occupied the highest churhc positions?
Brethren of the Common Life
Group of pious laypeople in Holland who lived in stark simplicity while daily carrying out hte Gospel teaching of feeding the hungry, clothing the naked, and visiting the sick.
The Imitation of Christ
Written by Thomas a Kempis it urged Christians to take Christ as their model and seek perfection in a simple way of ilfe
ecumenical council
Was a council that met in Rome from 1512 to 1517 that Pope Julius II summoned to help solve the problems and reform the church. The coucnil recommended higher standards of education and instruction
Describe the incident of the Church's corruption that prompted Luther to write The Ninety-Five Theses.
Archbishop Albert had borrowed money from the Fuggers--however unable to pay for this--Leo X authorized Archbishop Albert was prompted to sell indulgences in Germany to repay the Fuggers. Albert hired John Tetzel to sell the indulgences
It was a way for people to pay to relieve their sins and have God's love again/do penance
What three principles did the doctrine of indulgences rest on?
1) God is merciful but he is just 2) Christ and his saints have a special relationsip wit hte church 3) The church has the authority to grant sinners the spiritual benefits of those merits
"As soon as coin in coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs"
Said by John Tetzel to sell indulgences
Ninety-Five Theses on the Power of Indulgences
Written by Luther stating that indulgences undermined the seriousness of the sacrament of penance, competed with the preaching of the Gospel, and downplayed the importance of charity.
How did Luther think that salvation could be achieved?
He believed that you could not recieve salvation by good works such as indulgences
Diet of Worms
Diet that Charles V held in 1521 stating that Luther must recant--Luther did not and he was considered an outlaw but Duke Frederich of Saxony protected him
Ulrich Zwingli
Introduced the reformation in Switzerland.
derived from the small group of reforming German princes protesting at the Diet of Speyer in 1529. Used to describe all non-Catholic Christians
Compare the ideas of salvation in the church and by Luther?
Church: salvation comes by faith and good works
Luther: salvation comes by faith
Compare the idea where reilgious authority lies in by the Church or by Luther.
Luther: Church authority lies in the Bible alone and ones interpretations of the Bible.
sola scriptura
scripture alonge menaing the authority rests only in the scripture
Compare the definition of what is the church by Luther and by the church.
Church: the church consists of the clergy
Luther: church consists of all Christian believers
Compare the explanation of what is the highest form of Christian life by the Church and by Luther?
Luther: highest form of CHristian life are all vocations
Church: There is superiority of monastic and religious life over secular life
What was Luther's idea of the church?
Priesthood of all Believers
Compare the belief of the sacraments of the church and Luther?
Luther: there are 3 sacraments, baptism, penance, and the Eucharist
Church: there are 7 sacraments
The bread and wine become the actual body and blood of Christ who is then fully present in the bread and wine
belief that after consecration the bread and wine undergo a spiritual change where Christ is really present but the bread and wine are not transformed [Luther believed in]
What two medieval developments prepared the way for Luther's idea?
1) The city governments expressed resentment of clergical privileges and immunities. 2) educated townspeople condemend the irregularity and poor quality of sermons
Where preachers [men of superior education] who gave sermons
Why were many peasants attracted to Luther's ideas
Luther came from a peasant background and liked his idea that they could be free
Twelve Articles
written by Swabian peasants who listed the wrongs of the lay and ecclesiastical lords and the agrarian crisis of the sixteenth century
"Against the Murderous, Thieving, Hordes of Peasants"
Written by Luther who urged the nobility to end the peasant revolts which he bleieved would end civilized society
Describe the appeal that Luther had to each social group.
Educated people: Attracted to Luther's words and linguistic style
Peasants: attracted to the message that Luther promoted
Women: stated that all vocations have equal merit in the sight of God and he didnt believe in private confession which saved women the embarassment. Also he didnt think of sex as embarrasing and he didnt believe that priests couldnt get married
What did the marriage of Maximilian I of Habsburg and Mary of Burgundy lead to?
Led to the Austria house of Habsburg being an international power
Who did the heir of Mary and Maximilian [Philip of Burgundy] marry?
Joanna of Castile
Who was the heir to Joanna and Philips dynasty?
Charles V
What did Charles V inherit?
Spain, New World Possessions, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, Austria, Southern Germany, Low Countries, Franche-COmte in east central France
In the eyes of Charles V how important was Germany?
Germany was very unimportant to Charles V who put the country behind the Habsburg international interests
During the sixteenth century who determined the religion?
The king, emperor, prince, magistrate, or any other civil authority
Appeal to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation
Written by Luther in 1520 where he state4d that unless the princes destroyed papal power in Germany, reform was impossible. He urged the princes to confiscate ecclesiastical wealth and to abolish indulgences, dispensations, pardons, and clerical celibacy.
Why did Luther's ideas appeal to the German princes?
Luther had strong German patriotism and his rejection of Roman Catholicism and adoption of Protestantism would mean the legal confiscation of lush farmlands, rich monasteries, and wealthy shrines.
Which religion did Charles V vigorously defend?
What was the effect of the Protestant movement on Germany?
It was a political disaster because it left Germany divided between the Protestant and Catholic princes
Why did the Catholic king of France support Lutheran Princes?
Because the French and German were in a constant battle known as the Habsburg Valois War over the terriotory gained through the marriage of Maximilian and Mary of Burgundy. And this struggle for Protestantism led to a weaker, fragmented Germany.
Peace of Augsburg
Established in 1555 by Charles V the Peace of Augsburg officially recognized Lutheranism. It stated taht each prince in Germany would choose their territories religion. Northern and central Germany was Lutheran while the south remained Roman Catholic.
Which countries in 1555 had broken off from the Roman Catholic Church?
northern Europe:
Scandinavia, England, SDcotland, and self governing cities
The Institututes of the Christian Religion
Published in 1536 the book was written by John Calvin and shared the basic belief he had in the absolute sovereignty and omnipotence of God and weakness of humanity.
Men and women cannot actively work to achieve salvation; rather, God in his infinate wisdom decided at the beginning of time who would be saved and who damned.
What was the name of the Christian society that Calvin established in 1541?
Geneva Catechism
Calvin published in 1541-it was a set of questions and answers and acquired a summary of the Genevan people's faith and guide for daily living
What was the government like in the city of Geneva?
Theocracy: Calvin was the presider and there were 12 laymen plus the Company of Pastors.
Michael Servetus
Spanish humanist who denied the Christian dogma of the Trinity. He was arrested by the Inquisition and escaped, but because he also rejected child baptismhe was seen as corrupted and burned at the stake.
How did the Calvinist reformers view women?
Women should be married, women were subordinate to men, and marriage was an outlet for their sexual urges.
What were the beliefs of the Anabaptists?
Only adults could make a free choice about religious faith, baptism, and entry into the Christian community. They didnt believe in chidl baptism and they took the Gospel literally-they also believed in inner light and religious tolerance. They were also strong pacifists.
How were the Anabaptists treated in European society?
They were widely discriminated against because of their distinct views.
Which groups were later developed as a result of the ideas of the anabaptists?
Quakers, the Congregationalists, U.S. Constitution
During the early sixteenth century what was the condition of the English church?
It was in very healthy condition. There were zealous clergy that were educated and a strong wave of support for the church.
The Reformation in England was initiated by what?
King Henry VIII's emotional life
What did Henry VIII ask Clement VII for?
Henry asked Clement for an annulment after wanted to end his marriage with Catherine of Aragon after falling in love with Anne Boleyn. He stated that because of Catherine's previous union with his brother Arthur his marriage was void.
Why didnt Clement VII give Henry VIII an annulment?
He didnt want to make it seem like the papacy had made an err in judgement. Also Charles V [Catherine's nephew] had sacked Rome in 1527
The Act in Restraint of Appeals (1533)
Declared the king ot be the supreme sovereign in England and forbade judicial appeals to the papay-established the Crown as the highest legal authority
The Supremacy Act (1534)
Declared the king the supreme head of the Church of England
Between 1535 and 1539 under Henry VIII's chief minister Thomas Cromwell what did Henry do?
he dissolved the English monasteries for their wealth
Pilgrimage of Grace
was the pilgrimage in 1536 caused by popular opposition of Henry VIII's break from the church
Cromwell's reformation and centralizing the king's household, council, secretariats, and the Exchequer were caused by the liquidation of the church. How did these changes effect European government?
there was a new modern centralized bureaucratic state
Book of Common Prayer (1549)
The order for all services of the Church of England
Describe the religious belief of Edward VI and Mary Tudor
Edward VI was a Protestant while Mary Tudor was a devout Catholic
What was the religious belief of Elizabeth?
She fell in the middle of Catholic and Puritan extremes-she didnt care what people believed as long as they kept it private
Elizabethan Settlement
The parliamentary legislation of the early years of Elizabeth's reign=required outward conformity to the Church ofEngland and uniformity in all ceremonies
In Scotland what was the decisive influence in reform of the Church?
political authority: King James V and Mary Queen of Scots were Cathlics but nobility were Protestants
Who initiated the movement for reform in Scotland?
John Knox
In 1560 John Knox persuaded Scottish parliament to do what?
End papal authority
What did John Knox establish in Scotland?
The Presbyterian Church of Scotland & Book of Common Order (1564) which was the directory for the church
What religion were most of the working class Irishmen after the Reformation?
Roman Catholic
Gustavus Vasa
was a Swedish noble who in 1520 led a successful revolt against Denmark and Sweden became independent
Christian III
king of Denmakr and Norway who secularized church property and set up a Lutheran church
Why didnt Luther's ideals appeal to the Polish?
The Poles were anti-German and King Sigismund I banned Luther's teachings
Why did Calvinism appeal to the Polish?
They liked the idea of the power of church elders and Calvin was from France not Germany
What was the effect of Suleiman the Magnificant defeating Louis II in 1526?
Hungarian kingdom was divided into 3 parts: each religiously differently. The Mohacs led a great Protestant revival
From 1517 to 1547 Protestant reformation made a significant impact, however the Church sought to to make a huge comeback and after 1540 no new areas of Europe accepted Protestant beliefs. [except Netherlands] true or false?
Distinguish between the Catholic Reformation and the Counter Reformation.
The Catholic Reformation sought renewal basically through stimulation of a new spiritual fervor. While the Counter Reformation involved the Catholic efforts to move people away from Protestantism
Why did the popes move so slow in stopping the Protestant reformation?
They were more preoccupied in politcal affairs in Italy and in humanism
Why did Charles V sack Rome in 1527?
He was angry after Clement VII switched sides from the Spanish to Francis I of France. This battle was the battle competing for Italy.
What was the purpose of the Council of Trent?
Reform the church and reconcile with te Protestants
What was the outcome of the Council of Trent?
The council gave validity to the Scripture and tradition and reaffirmed the seven sacraments. They outlawed pluralism, simony, and selling of indulgences. They required education and emphasized preaching and made sure marriage was public
Group of women who wanted to combat heresy through Christian education. They taught mothers and daughters and was started by Angela Merici
Soceity of Jesus
Founded by Ignatius Loyola it played a powerful role in resisting Protestantism and spreading Catholicism to Asia, India, and Europe-members were called Jesuits
How did the Inquisition affect the Counter Reformation?
Was a powerful instrument used to arrest, imprison, and execute all heretics
Index of Prohibited Books
List of books made by the Holy Office that were forbidden to read
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
Signed in 1559 it ended the Habsburg-Valois war fought between Spain and France. Spain was the victor dominating Italy.
How did wars of the late sixteenth century differ from earlier wars?
The armies were now bigger, governments had to finacne these large armies, there was the use of gunpowder, and use of propaganda and printing press. Also after the ending of Habsburg Valois war-war was now primarily fought because of religion and politics not dynasties
What two things did Francis I do to try to raise revenues to pay for the Habsburg Valois war?
1) selling public office
2) making a treaty with the papacy
Why did France remain Roman Catholic?
Because of the Concordat of Bologna there was no reason to convert to Protestantism
What did Catherine de Medici want for the French throne?
Wanted civil order as long as her sons were controlling the government
What percentage of French nobility were Calvinist?
French Calvinists
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
A savage Catholic attack on Calvinistst on August 24, 1572. Caused by the marriage of Margaret of Valois to Henry of Navarre
War of the Three Henrys
Civil conflict between Catholic Henry of Guise, Protestant Henry of Navarre, and King Henry III
Small group of moderates of both faiths who believed that only the the restoration of strong monarchy could reverse the trend toward collapse
How did Henry of Navarre come into power?
Henry of Navarre came into power when Henry of Guise and Henry III were assassinated. He became Henry IV and was a politique
"Paris is worth a mass"
Stated by Henry IV it basically means that Paris was primary Catholic and he would need to convert to Catholicism to win the support of France
Edict of Nantes
Henry IV published in 1598 granting Huguenots liberty of consicnece and liberty of public worship in 150 fortified towns
Describe the government of the seventeen provinces of the Netherlands in the late sixteenth century
Netherlands were self governing and enjoyed the rights to make its own laws and collect its own taxes. However they were under the control of Charles V
In 1556 how did Charles V divide his territory?
He gave Austria and the HRE to his brother Ferdinand. His son Philip inherited Spain, Low Countries, Milan, Sicily, and Americas
What was the cause of the 1566 riots in the Low Countries?
high grain prices
What did Philip II do to pacify the low countries after the riots in 1566?
He sent the duke of Alva to pacify the low countries along with 20,000 Spanish troops
Council of Blood
Established by the duke of Alva who used this extreme force to stop the Calvinists in the Low Countries
The civil war from 1568-1578 in the Netherlands was a conseqquence of what?
Catholic and Protestant struggles and the seventeen provinces struggle with Spain
Prince William of Orange
Called "The Silent" he united the seveteen provinces to fight against hte Spanish
Alexander Farnese
Known as the duke of Parma he was sent by Philip II to crush the revolt in the Netherlands. He fought by patient siege and the cities slowly fell.
What was the financial capital of northern Europe during the sixteenth century?
Union of Utrecht
The union formed by the seven norhtern provinces, led by Holland, who declared their independence from Spain in 1581
Why did Queen Elizabeth support the Low Countries?
1) the Netherlands were primary market for wool and without their trade the English economy would be hurt 2) William the Silet was murdered and there was no check on the Farnese 3) collapse of Antwerp could ead to Catholic sweep and Spanish could overtake England
Mary, Queen of Scots
Was the cousin and heir of Elizabeth of England was was implicated in a plot to assassinate Elizabeth in the hopes of making England Catholic
Spanish Armada
130 vessels who met 150 English fleet and were defeated by the English. This defeat was due to swift fast English shift and lack of food/supplies for the Spanish
What was the consequence of the Spanish defeat in the Spanish Armada?
Elizabeth was able to support the Dutch and England wasnt conqured. It prevented Spain's attempt to unite Europe in one religion
Protestant Union (1608)
Catholic League (1609)
Protestant Union was formed by Lutheran princes because of the tense situation. While Catholic League was formed in retaliation of the formation of Protestant Union
defenestration of Prague (March 23, 1618)
Occured when Protestants hurled 2 of Ferdinand's officials from a castle window in Prague. They fell 70 feet but survived and Catholics claimed that angels caught them while Protestants said they fell in horse manure
What were the four parts of the Thirty Years War?
1) Bohemian phase
2) Danish phase
3) Swedish phase
4) French or International Phase
Describe the Bohemian phase of the Thirty Years War
The first part was a civil war in Bohemia between the Catholic League led by Ferdinand and hte Protestant Union headed by Frederick. Frederick was defeated and Bhomeia was in the control of the Catholics
Battle of White Mountain
The battle where Frederick was defeated by Cathlic forces in 1620 during the Thirty Years War. This was during the Bohemian phase of the Thirty Years War
Describe the Danish phase of the Thirty Years War
The Danish pat of the war was fought between the King of Denmark Christian IV against the Cathoic forces led by Albert Wallenstein who scored many victories.
Albert Wallenstein
Was the leader of the Catholic imperial army who was more interested in carving out an empire then the Catholic cause
Describe the Swedish phase of the Thirty Years War
The Swedish phase was lead by Gustavus Adolphus who wanted to support the Protestants. He was supported by Cardinal Richelieu of France and they had many victories. These victories include the victory at Breitenfeld and at Lutzen. The ultimate Swedish victories ended the Habsburg's ambition of uniting all the German states.
Gustavus Adolphus
Was the Swedish king who was a devout Lutheran and supported the oppressed Protestants. He was a major force in the Thirty Years War and brought victories in the Battle of Breitenfeld and Lutzen. However he died in 1632.
Explain why Cardinal Richelieu who was the chief minister of King Louis XIII of France [a Catholic country] supported Gustavus Adolphus during the Thirty Years War.
Cardinal Richelieu realized that by supporting the Protestant movement he was ultimately weakening the dominating Habsburg power. Because Adolphus was fighting for the Protestant rights he was ultimately weakening the Habsburg, which explains Richeleu's support
Describe the International or French phase of the Thirty Years War.
During this phase Cardinal Richelieu declared war on Spain. Also he sent financial and military assistance to the Swedes and German Protestant princes.
Peace of Westphalia
Was the treaty signed at Munster and Osnabruck signifying the end of the Thirty Years War. The treaty recognized hte sovereign independent authority of more than 300 German princes each governing their own period.
What was the effect of the Peace of Westphalia?
United Provinces were independent and the Habsburg power was limited. France's size increased and so did Swedish. Also stated that the Augsburg agreement of 1555 would stand permanently-and Calvinism was legal.
What did the Peace of Westphalia signify an end of [besides the Thirty Years War]
Signified the end of wars fought on religious faiths
What was the effect of the Thirty Years War on Germany's economy and society?
1/3-2/5 of the urban residents died depopulation, economic crisis caused by influx of silver, price crises, agricultural areas were destroyed, serfdom was reestbalished
Which country got a head start in the venturing outward and exploration?
Prince Henry, "The Navigator"
Was a Portuguese explorer who established a school for the study of geography and navigation and sent annual expeditions down the western coast of Africa. He helped established trading posts in Guinea coast and went down to Timbuktu. With his help by 1500 the Portuguese controlled the flow of gold to Europe
Bartholomew Diaz
In 1487 Diaz rounded the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese mariner who reached India and returned to Libson loaded with spices and samples of Indian cloth.
Pedro Alvares Cabral
Assisted Diaz to set up trading posts in India. He also saw Brazil on April 22, 1500 and claimed it for Portugal and reached India and brought spices back.
Who did the Portuguese have to fight off to gain the India trade ports?
The Muslims
Explain the significance of the development of the cannon
The cannon helped take down large walls and were important in naval warfare
Galleys & Caravel
Galleys were open boats propelled by man power. Caravel were small, light three-masted sailing ships
magnetic compass & astrolobe
Magnetic compass was used for directions while the astrolobe was an instrument developed by Muslim navigators used to determine the altitude of the sun and other bodies or to plot latitude
Describe some of the religious reasons for the exploratin of the fifteenth century.
Many of the kings/queens including Queen Isabella wanted to spread Christianity
Explain the appeal for men of the uppler Spanish class to explore.
They had more economic and political opportunities if they explored
What goods were most desired by the explorers?
What was the primary reason for European exploration and expnansion?
material profit
What was the purpose of Columbus' voyage?
To find a direct ocean route to Asia and greatly expand trade for Spain
Who was Ferdinand Magellan
He crossed the Pacific and sailed to Archipelago and he was killed on his expedition.
Who was Hernando Cortes?
Cortes was a Spanish adventurer who took over the Aztec empeire and found Mexico City as capital of New Spain
Who was Francis Pizarro?
Another explorer who conquered Peru and crushed the Inca Empire
What was the financial capital by the end of the sixteenth century?
By the earlier seventeenth century [1602] who had overtaken Portuguese trade?
The Dutch with the Dutch Esast India Company
Why was the sixteenth century called the Golden Century of Spain
Because of the influence of Spanish armies, Spanish Catholicism, and Spanish wealth. Mainly the wealth came from the gold and silver mines.
What was the effect of the steady population increase in Spain during the sixteenth century?
A sharp rise in demand for food and goods which could not be met because of the expulsion of the Jews and Muslims---prices rose on goods and clothes and Spanish markets couldnt compete hurting the ecnomy in Spain
What were some of the possible causes of the price revolution in Spain during the sixteenth century?
-Flood of silver and gold
-Population growth
-debt from army
What was the greatest gift that the Americas gave Europe and the rest of the world?
What "gift" did the Spaniards give to the Amerindians and the Amerindians gift to the Spaniards that was not exactly pleasant?
The Europeans gave small pox while the Amerindians gave syphillis to the Europeans
What were viceroyalties?
administrative divisions in the New World: New Spain, Peru, New Granada, Ecuador
What was the system of intendents?
Where there was an audiencia, board of 12 to 15 judges, and then the intendents were royal officials who possessed authority over their intendancy but were responsible to the monarchy