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147 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

the smallest arterial branches are called...


the inner layer of a blood vessel that includes the endothelial lining and a surrounding layer of connective tissue with a variable number of elastic fibers

tunica intima

in arteries, the outer margin of the tunica intima contains a thick layer of elastic fibers called the...

internal elastic membrane

the middle layer of a blood vessel..

tunica media

the tunica media is separated from the surrounding tunica externs by a thin elastic fibers called the...

external elastic membrane

the outer layer of a blood vessel

tunica externa

when stimulated, aerial smooth muscle contact, constricting the artery


when aerial smooth muscle relax, the diameter of the lumen increases


also know as conducting arteries, these carry large volumes of blood away from the heart

elastic arteries

the pulmonary trunk, common carotid, subclavian, and common iliac arteries are examples of...

elastic arteries

medium-sized arteries know as distribution arteries because they distribute good to the body's skeletal muscles and internal organs

muscular arteries

the external carotid arteries of the neck, the brachial arteries of the arms, the mesenteric arteries of the abdomen, and the femoral arteries of the thighs are all examples of...

muscular arteries

superficial muscular arteries are important as _____________________, places in the body where muscular arteries can be pressed against deeper bones to reduce blood flow and control severe bleeding

pressure points

the force opposing blood flow is called...

resistance (R)

arterioles are also know as....

resistance vessels

a bulge in the weakened wall of an artery


in this type of capillary, the endothelium is a complete lining and it is found in all tissues except epithelia and cartilage

continuous capillary

this type of capillary contains "windows" or pores that penetrate the endothelial linging and allow repid exchange of water and solutes between plasma and interstitual fluid.

fenestrated capillaries

this type of capillary resemble fenestrated capillaries that are flattened and irregularly shaped, commonly having gaps between adjacent endothelial cells and a basement membrane that is either thin or absent

sinusoidal capillaries

capillaries function not as individual units, but rather as a part of an interconnected network called a....

capillary bed or capillary plexus

the entrance to each capillary is guarded by a .... which can reduce or stop blood flow

precapillary sphincter

capillary beds contain several direct connections between arterioles and venules; the wall in the first part of such a passageway contains smooth muscle that can change its diameter know as a...

metarteriole or precapillary arteriole

after the metarteriole or precapillary arteriole in a capillary bed, the passageway resembles a typical capillary in structure and is know as a....

thoroughfare channel

more than one artery may supply blood to a capillary bed, the multiple arteries are called...


the fusion of two collateral arteries that supply a capillary bed is an example of an....

arterial anastomosis

an anastomosis is the...

joining of blood vessels

direct connections between arterioles and venules are known as...

arteriovenous anastomoses

the formation of new blood vessels is known as...


angiogenesis is under the direction of...

VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor

the cycling of contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles that changes blood flow through capillary beds is called...


vasomotion is controlled locally by changes in the concentrations of...

chemicals and dissolved gases in the interstitial fluid

the smallest venous vessels are known as...


while the arterial system is a high-pressure system, the venous system's pressure is so low it cannot overcome the...

force of gravity

when blood pools in the veins and the vessels become grossly distended and mid discomfort and cosmetic problems known as....occur

varicose veins

a more painful and severe version of varicose veins is known as...


veins are much more distensible or... than arteries.


veins which expand easily are called...

capacitance vessels

the process of systemic veins constricting is known as...


this term refers to arterial pressure, usually reported in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)

blood pressure (BP)

this term refers to the pressure within capillary walls

capillary hydrostatic pressure (CHP)

the pressure within the venous system is known as..

venous pressure

the resistance of the entire cardiovascular system is known as

total peripheral resistance

the forces that oppose blood flow in the blood vessels is known as...

vascular resistance

What are the 4 main factors affecting vascular resistance?

1. vessel length

2. vessel diameter

3. blood viscosity

4. turbulence

this is the resistance to flow caused by interactions among molecules and suspended materials in a liquid...


high flow rates, irregular surfaces, and sudden changes in vessel diameter upset the smooth flow of blood, creating eddies and swirls know as....

which increases resistance and slows blood flow


the peak blood pressure measured during ventricular systole is known as...

systolic pressure

the minimum blood pressure at the end of ventricular diastole is called....

diastolic pressure

systolic pressure/diastolic pressure =

= BP (blood pressure)

the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures is the ....

pulse pressure

MAP (mean arterial pressure) =

= diastolic pressure + (pulse pressure/3)

For a systolic pressure of 120 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure of 90 mm Hg, we calculate MAP as follows:

MAP = 90 + (120/3) = 100 mm Hg

abnormally high blood pressure is termed...


abnormally low blood pressure is termed...


when diastole begins and blood pressures fall, the arteries recoil to their original dimensions and this phenomenon is known...

elastic rebound

factors that contribute to the net hydrostatic pressure include....

1. capillary hydrostatic pressure (CHP)

2. interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (IHP)

the net colloid osmotic pressure is the difference between...

1. the blood colloid pressure (BCOP)

2. interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure (ICOP)

the net filtration pressure (NFP) is the difference between...

net hydrostatic pressure (CHP - IHP) - net colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP - ICOP)

homeostatic mechanisms regulate cardiovascular activity to ensure that blood flow through tissues that meets the demand for oxygen ad nutrients are known as...

tissue perfusion

3 factors that affect tissue perfusion are...

1. cardiac output

2. peripheral resistance

3. blood pressure

the purpose of cardiovascular regulation is to ensure that blood flow changes occur....

1. at an appropriate time

2. in the right area

3. without drastically changing blood pressure and blood flow to vital organs

these 3 regulatory mechanisms focus on controlling cardiac output and blood pressure to restore adequate blood flow after blood pressure drops...

1. autoregulation

2. neural mechanisms

3. endocrine mechanisms

factors that promote the dilation of precapillary sphincters are called...


1. decreased tissue oxygen levels or increased CO2 levels

2. lactic acid or other acids generated by tissue cells

3. nitric oxide (NO) released from endothelial cells

4. rising concentrations of potassium ions or hydrogen ions in the interstitial fluid

5. chemicals released during local inflammation

6. elevated local temperature

These are all examples of __________ at work.

local vasodilators

cardiac and vasomotor centers anatomically form complexes known as..

cardiovascular (CV) centers

the sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerves are always active, producing significant...

vasomotor tone

these respond to changes in blood pressure

baroreceptor reflexes

these respond to changes in chemical composition of arterial blood

chemoreceptor reflexes

these are expanded chambers near the bases of the internal carotid arteries of the neck

carotid sinuses

these are pockets in the walls of the ascending aorta adjacent to the heart and the wall of the right atrium

aortic sinuses

the baroreceptors involved in cardiovascular regulation are found in the walls of...

1. carotid sinuses

2. aortic sinuses

this reflex adjusts blood pressure to maintain adequate blood pressure and blood flow through the systemic circuit

aortic reflex

when blood pressure climbs, the increased output from the baroreceptors alters activity in the CV centers and produces two major effects...

1. a decrease in cardiac outputm (due to parasympathetic stimulation)

2. widespread peripheral vasodilation (due to the inhibition of excitatory neurons in the vasomotor center)

When blood pressure falls below normal, baroreceptor output is reduced accordingly and the following two major effects occur...

1. an increase in cardiac output (stimulation of sympathetic innervation to the heart)

2. widespread peripheral vasoconstriction (stimulation of sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurons by the vasomotor center)

these baroreceptors monitor blood pressure at the end of the systemic circuit (at the venae cavae and the atrium)

atrial baroreceptors

this maneuver involves trying to exhale forcefully with closed lips and nostrils so that no air can leave the lungs and pressure in the thoracic cavity rises sharply causing reflexive changes in blood pressure and cardiac output due to increased intrathroacic pressure

Valsalva maneuver

chemoreceptor reflexes respond to changes in carbon dioxide, oxygen, or pH levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid and are found in...

1. carotid bodies (situated in the neck near the carotid sinuses)

2. aortic bodies (near the arch of the aorta)

this hormone is released at the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland in response to a decrease in blood volume, an increase in the osmotic concentration of plasma, or to circulating angiotension II

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) does what?

brings about a peripheral vasoconstriction that elevates blood pressure, also stimulates the conservation of water at the kidneys

this appears in the blood when specialized kidney cells, called juxtaglomerular cells, release the enzyme renin in response to a fall in renal blood pressure

Angiotension II

What does angiotension II do?

1. it stimulates the adrenal production of aldosterone (causing Na+ retention and K+ loss by the kidneys)

2. stimulation of the secretion of ADH (stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and complementing the effects of aldosterone)

3. it stimulates thirst

4. it stimulates cardio output and triggers the constriction of arterioles (in turn elevating the systemic blood pressure)

What does erythropoietin (EPO) do?

it acts directly on blood vessels, causing vasoconstriction, thereby increasing blood pressure

cardiac muscle cells in the wall of the right atrium of the heart produce ______ in response to excessive stretching during diastole

atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

ventricular muscle cells exposed to excessive stretching produce a hormone known as ______

brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)

atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) cause..

the reduction of blood volume and blood pressure by:

1. increasing sodium ion excretion by the kidneys

2. promoting water losses by increasing the volume of urine produced

3. reducing thirst

4. blocking the release of ADH, aldosterone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine

5. stimulating peripheral vasodilation

as you begin light exercise, three interrelated changes take place:

1. extensive vasodilation occurs as skeletal muscles consume O2 more quickly

2. venous return increases as skeletal muscle contractions squeeze blood along the peripheral veins

3. cardiac output rises

these three elastic arteries orginate along the aortic arch and deliver blood to the head, neck, shoulders, and upper limbs...

1. brachiocephalic trunk

2. left common carotid artery

3. left subclavian artery

the brachiocephalic trunk branches to form the _______________ and ________________

right subclavian artery and right common carotid artery

three major branches arise before a subclavian artery leaves the thoracic cavity...

1. internal thoracic artery (supplying the pericardium and anterior wall of the chest)

2. vertebral artery (provides blood to the brain and spinal cord)

3. thyrocervical trunk (provides blood to muscles and other tissues of the neck, shoulders, and upper back)

the subclavian artery becomes the _______ after passing across the superior border of the 1st rib

axillary artery

the axillary artery becomes the ______________ after the head of the humerus

brachial artery

the brachial artery divides into the ________ and _________

radial artery and ulnar artery

at the wrist, the radial and ulnar arteries fuse to form the_________ and ____________

superficial and deep palmar arches

the palmar arches branch off to the ______ in the thumb and fingers

digital arteries

each common carotid artery divides into...

1. external carotid artery

2. internal carotid artery

the carotid sinus is located at the base of the

internal carotid artery

the internal carotid arteries ascend to the level of the optic nerves, where each artery divides into three branches:

1. ophthalmic artery (supplies the eyes)

2. anterior cerebral artery (supplies the frontal and parietal lobes)

3. middle cerebral artery (supplies midbrain and lateral surfaces of the cerebral hemispheres)

the vertebral arteries enter the cranium at the foramen magnum, where they fuse along the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata to form the...

basilar artery

the basilar artery divides into the... and then the.....

posterior cerebral arteries and posterior communicating arteries

the internal carotid arteries and the basilar artery are interconnected, forming a ring-shaped anasomosis called the ....

cerebral arterial circle or the circle of Willis, which encircles the infundibulum of the pituitary gland

interruptions of the vascular supply to a portion of the brain are known as..

strokes or cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs)

the most common site of a stroke is the __________ which is a major branch of the cerebral arterial circle

middle cerebral artery

if a stroke blocks the middle cerebral artery of the left side of the brain the following symptoms occur:

1. aphasia

2. sensory/motor paralysis of the right side of the body

if a stroke blocks the middle cerebral artery of the right side of the brain the following symptoms occur:

1. loss of sensation/motor control on the left side of the body

2. difficulty drawing or interpreting spatial relationships

strokes affecting the lower brain stem are commonly...


the descending aorta is continuous with the aortic arch and is divided at the diaphragm into the...

superior thoracic arch and inferior abdominal aorta

the thoracic aorta begins at the level of vertebra..


the thoracic aorta branches into...

1. visceral branches (bronchial, pericardial, esophageal, and mediastinal arteries)

2. parietal branches (intercostal and superiors phrenic arteries)

the abdominal aorta branches into..

the left and right common iliac arteries

the abdominal aorta also gives rise to three unpaired arteries:

1. celiac trunk

2. superior mesenteric artery

3. inferior mesenteric artery

the celiac trunk divides into:

1. left gastric artery

2. splenic artery

3. common hepatic artery

the superior mesenteric artery supplies blood to..

1. pancreas and duodenum

2. small intestine

3. most of the large intestine

the inferior mesenteric artery supplies blood to the...

1. terminal portions of the colon

2. rectum

the abdominal aorta also gives rise to 5 paired arteries

1. inferior phrenic arteries (diaphragm/esophagus)

2. adrenal arteries

3. renal arteries

4. gonadal arteries (testicles/ovaries)

5. lumbar arteries

The common iliac arteries carry blood to the..

pelvis and lower limbs

at the level of the lumbosacral joint, each common iliac artery divides into..

1. internal iliac artery

2. external iliac artery

the veins of the cerebral hemispheres drain into the following sinuses:

1. superior sagittal sinus (in the falx cerebri)

2. petrosal sinuses

3. occpital sinus

4. left/right transverse sinuses

5. straight sinus

the venous sinuses converge within the dura mater in the region of the lamboid suture and the drains into a __________

sigmoid sinus, which penetrates the jugular foramen and leave the skull as the internal jugular vein

vertebral veins empty into the _________________ chest

brachiocephalic veins

the superficial veins of the head converge to form the...

1. temporal vein

2. facial vein

3. maxillary vein

the temporal vein and the maxillary vein drain into the _______

external jugular vein

the facial vein drains into the ____

internal jugular vein

the digital veins empty into the __________ and ____________

superficial and deep palmar veins

the superficial and palmar veins converge to form the _______________

palmar venous arches

the palmar venous arches empties into the ___________, ________________, and ________________

1. cephalic vein, which ascends along the radial side of the forearm

2. median antebrachial vein

3. basilic vein, which ascends on the ulnar side

anterior to the elbow is the superficial ______________, which passes from the cephalic vein, medially and at an oblique angle to connect to the basilic vein

median cubital vein

the deep palmar veins drain into the _____________ and _______________

radial vein and ulnar vein

the radial and ulnar veins fuse to form the __________ which runs parallel to the brachial artery

brachial vein

as the brachial vein continues toward the trunk, it merges with the basilic vein and becomes the _____, entering into the axilla

axillary vein

the cephalic vein joins the axillary vein on the lateral surface of the first rib, forming the _______________

subclavian vein, which continues into the chest

the subclavian vein passes superior to the first rib and along the superior margin of the clavicle, merging with the external/internal jugular veins to create the ___________

brachiocephalic vein or innominate vein, which penetrates the body wall and enters the thoracic cavity

near the heart, the left and right brachiocephalic veins join, creating the ____________

superior vena cava

the azygos vein is the major tributary of the superior vena cava, ascending from the __________

lumbar region over the right side of the vertebral column to enter the thoracic cavity through the diaphragm

the azygos and hemiazygos veins are the chief collecting vessels of the thorax, receiving blood from:

1. intercostal veins

2. esophageal veins

3. small veins draining from other mediastinal structures

the dorsal venous arch collects blood from capillaries on the superior surface of the foot and the digital veins of the toes and then drains into:

1. the great saphenous vein

2. the small saphenous vein

the saphenous vein drains into the...

femoral vein

the femoral vein receives blood from the following:

1. femoral circumflex vein (the neck and head of femur)

2. great saphenous vein

3. deep femoral vein (deeper structures in the thigh)

the femoral vein penetrates the body wall and emerges in the pelvic cavity as the...

external iliac vein

the inferior vena cava collects blood from 6 major veins:

1. lumbar veins

2. gonadal veins

3. hepatic veins

4. renal veins

5. adrenal veins

6. phrenic veins (diaphragm)

the hepatic portal vein delivers blood to the liver and receives blood from the following 3:

1. inferior mesenteric vein

2. splenic vein

3. superior mesenteric vein

as it proceeds, the hepatic portal vein receives blood from the left and right ______ and the _______ of the gallbladder

gastric veins and the cystic vein

after passing through the liver sinusoids, blood colects in the hepatic veins and empties into the

inferior vena cava

age-related changes in blood may include:

1. a decreased hematocrit

2. constriction or blockage of peripheral veins

3. pooling of blood in the veins of the legs

age-related changes in the heart may include:

1. a reduction in maximum cardiac output

2. changes in the activities of nodal and conducting cells

3. reduction in the elasticity of the cardiac skeleton

4. progressive artherosclerosis that can restrict coronary circulation

5. replacement of damaged cardiac muscle cells by scar tissue

age-related changes in blood vessel may be linked to arteriosclerosis:

1. inelastic walls of arteries

2. calcium salts can be deposited on vascular walls

3. thrombi can form at atherosclerotic plaques

the hepatic portal system is unique in the fact that it...
carries glucose and amino rich blood