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171 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the efferent pathways of the autonomic nervous system consists of
sympathetic and parasympathetic
the central nervous system consists of
brain and spinal cord
the peripheral nervous system consists of
the rest of the body
a neuron that transmits a nerve impulse towards the central nervous system is called
sensory neuron
the largest and most numerous glia
what is the function of the central nervous system
evaluates information, initiates outgoing responses, integrates sensory information
what do we call the part of the nervous system that transmits impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscle
somatic nervous system
what forms the myelin sheath
schwann cells
myelin sheath is associated with white fibers in the brain
myelin sheath is important for nerve impulse conduction
myelin sheath is destroyed in people with MS
myelin sheath covers cell bodies in the brain and spinal cord
neurons in the CNS have less chance of regenerating
when the microglia form scar tissue
along a neuron the correct pathway for impulse conduction is
dendrites, cell body, axons
what do we call a neuron that has only one axon and several dendrites
the reflex arc always consists of an afferent and efferent neuron
multipolar neurons have
multiple dendrites and one axon
most unipolar neurons are
sensory neurons
fascicles are held together by a connective tissue layer called
the grey matter in the brain and spinal cord consist primarily of
myelinated fibers
regeneration of nerve fibers will take place only if the cell body is in tact and the fibers have

which of the following does not cross the blood brain barrier
which neurotransmitter is associated with parkinsons disease
dendrites conduct impulses ______ cell bodies

a neurons resting membrane potential is
the larger the diameter of a nerve fiber will
slow down
where is the synaptic knob located
on the axon
there are how many miles of nerves in the human body
which is true of a neuron with a resting potential
sodium pump moves sodium to the outside of the cell membrane
when we have an action potential the outside of the plasma membrane is
negatively charged
when we have an action potential the inside of the plasma membrane is
positively charged
the only ions that can diffuse across a neurons membrane when the neuron is at rest is
what is the first event to occur when an adequate stimulus is applied to the neuron
the sodium channels open up

a slight shift away from the resting membrane potentials in a specific region of the plasma membrane is called
local potential
during a relative refractory period what can happen to the action potential
if the stimulus is strong enough an action potential can occur
what does a synapse consist of
synaptic knob, synaptic cleft, plasma membrane
when an impulse reaches a synapse what occurs
chemical transmitters are released
excitatory neurotransmitters are most likely to initiate
action potential

when a current leaps across an insulating myelin sheath from node to node the type of impulse conduction is
salutatory conduction
for a neurotransmitter to produce an inhibitory post synaptic potential which of the following channels must open
potassium and/or chlorine channels
what are the main chemical classes of neurotransmitters
acetylcholine, amines, neuropeptides
serotonin is an example of what kind of neurotransmitter
are all neurotransmitters inhibitory

what are the most common neurotransmitters in the CNS
amino acids
glycine is what kind of neurotransmitter
amino acid (inhibitory)
Compared with the inside of the cell, the outside of most cell membranes is
The difference in electrical charge across a plasma membrane is called
membrane potential
A neuron's resting membrane potential is
Which of the following statements is true concerning the sodium–potassium pump
Three sodium ions are pumped out of the neuron for every two potassium ions pumped into the neuron
During a relative refractory period
an action potential is possible only in response to a very strong stimulus
Voltage–gated channels are
Ion channels that open in response to voltage fluctuations
What current leaps across an insulating myelin sheath from node of Ranvier to node of Ranvier, the type of impulse conduction is
Saltatory conduction
The large diameter of a nerve fiber
The faster the speed of conduction
During rest, excess oxygen molecules in the sarcoplasm are attached to a large protein molecule called myoglobin
Anaerobic respiration results in the formation of an incompletely catabolized molecule called lactic acid
The principal components of a motor unit is
One somatic motor neuron, The muscle fibers supplied by a somatic motor neuron
The staircase phenomenon is also known as
skeletal muscles are innervated by
Somatic motor neurons
Which of the following statements concerning isometric contractions is true
muscle length remains constant
physiological muscle fatigue is caused by
relative lack of ATP
small distinct regions of gray matter within the CNS are usually called
Nerves that contain mostly efferent fibers are called
Motor nerves
Gray matter in the CNS consists of
Cell bodies
Most nerves in the human nervous system are
mixed nerves
Evidence now indicates that neurons may be replaced
Regeneration of nerve fibers will occur if the cell body is intact and the fibers have a neurilemmal
The are no differences between the CNS and PNS concerning the repair of damaged fibers
What is a disorder of the nervous system that involves the glia, rather than the neurons
Multiple Sclerosis
What is a common type of brain tumor that is usually benign but may still be life–threatening
What is a highly malignant form of astrocytic tumor is known as
Gliobastoma multiforme
An inherited glial disease characterized by numerous benign fibrous neurons throughout the body is known as
Most disorders of the nervous system involve
glia rather than neurons
Incoming sensory pathways are
The parasympathetic division coordinates the body's normal resting activities and is sometimes referred to as
rest and repair division
The myelin sheath is produced by
What are found only in peripheral neurons
Schwann cells
Myelin sheath gaps are often called
Nodes of Ranvier
Energy for neurons is provided by
Myelinated fibers are
Supporting cells
conduct impulses
forms the myelin sheath around central nerve fibers
multiple sclerosis
action potential and nerve impulses are synonymous
When repolarization has occured, an impulse cannot be conducted
The action potential is an all or none response
Many anesthetics function by inhibiting the opening of sodium channels and thus block the initiation and conduction of nerve impulses
Which of the following structures is not a main component of a chemical synapse
synaptic process
A synaptic knob is located on the
Spatial summation
neurotransmitters released simultaneously from several pre–synaptic knobs converge on one post–synaptic neuron
Ca++ ions cause the release of neurotransmitters across the synaptic cleft
Neurotransmitters are released in a synapse and bind to
receptors on the post–synaptic terminal
Endurance training is also called
aerobic training
a muscle contracts the instant it is stimulated
Isotonic contractions is one in which the tone or tension within a muscle remains the same, but the length of the muscle changes
One method of studying muscles contraction is called
Muscle with more toned than normal can be described as flaccid
Smooth muscle is located
in the walls of hollow organs
Skeletal muscle tissue
contains many nuclei near the sarcolemma
Skeletal muscle tissue
is voluntary
Smooth muscle tissue
is not striated
Cardiac muscle tissue is
striated and contains a single nucleus
Smooth muscle tissue
Has larger diameter T tubules that form dyads with sarcoplasmic reticulum
Cardiac muscle tissue
Skeletal muscle tissue primary functions
movement of bones, heat production, and posture
Cardiac muscle tissue has
intercalated disks
Smooth muscle tissue has
loosely organized sarcoplasmic reticulum
muscle strains are characterized by
crush injuries can cause ______________ to accumulate in the blood and result in kidney failure
A viral infection of the nerves that control skeletal muscle movement is known as
The structural and functional center of the entire nervous system is the
central nervous system
Nerves that originate from the brain are called ________nerves
The somatic nervous system carries information to the
skeletal muscles
The efferent pathways of the autonomic nervous system can be divided into the _______divisions
parasympathetic and sympathetic
The ______nervous system is a complex network of nerve pathways embedded in the intestinal wall with a network of integators and feedback loops that can act somewhat independently
Excitable cells that conduct the impulses are called
The main chemical classes of neurotransmitters include all of the following except
Which of the following is not a example of an amine neurotransmitter
Severe depression can be caused by a deficit in which of the following neurotransmitters
Which of the following is not a catecholamine
Cocaine produces a temporary feeling of well–being by blocking the re–uptake of dopamine
Multiple sclerosis is a _____________disorder
_________disease is a failure to release adequate dopamine at the synapse of certain motor pathways
Neurotrophins stimulate neuron development but also can act as
neurotransmitters and neuromodulators
A membrane that exhibits a membrane potential is said to be
The membrane potential maintained by a nonconducting neuron's plasma membrane is called the
resting membrane potential
The mechanisms that produce and maintain the resting membrane potential do so by producing a
slight excess of positive ions on the outer surface of the plasma membrane
The active transport mechanism in the plasma membrane that transports sodium and potassium ions in opposite direction and at different rates is the
chloride channel
An ion channel that opens in response to a sensory stimulus is a
stimulus gated channel
Movement of the membrane potential away from zero (below the usual RMP) is called
A term commonly used as a synonym for action potential is
If the magnitude of the local depolarization surpasses a limit called the _________, voltage–gated Na+ channels are stimulated to open
threshold potential
The brief period during which a local area of an axon's membrane resists re–stimulation is called the _________period
The action potential seems to "leap" from node to node along a myelinated fiber. This type of impulse regeneration is called __________conduction
There are two types of synapses–the electrical synapse and the ______synapse
The tiny budge at the end of a terminal branch of a presynaptic's neuron's axon is called
synaptic knob
What mechanism quickly terminates the action of a neurotransmitter once it binds to its post–synaptic receptor
Neurotransmitter molecules are transported back into synaptic knobs, the molecules are metabolized into inactive compounds and the molecules are transported into nearby glial cells
When synaptic knobs stimulate a post–synaptic neuron in rapid succession, their effect can add up over a brief period to produce an action potential–this is called
termporal summation
Which chemicals allow neurons to communicate with one another
What is a group of genetic diseases characterized by atrophy of skeletal muscle tissue
muscular dystrophy
What is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks muscle cells at the neuromuscular junction
Myasthenia Gravis
When a muscle does not shorten and no movement results, the contraction is
Pushing against a wall is an example of which type of contraction
Prolonged activity causes muscles to shrink in mass, a condition called
disuse atrophy
muscle fibers usually contract to about _____% of their starting length
Which statement is true if smooth muscle
it lines the walls of many hollow organs
what is a quick jerky response of a given muscle to a single stimulus called
The energy required for muscular contraction is obtained by hydrolysis of amino acids
A motor neuron together with the cells it innervates is called a motor unit
If muscles are stimulated repeatedly without adequate periods of rest, the strength of the muscle contraction will decrease, resulting in fatigue
The minimum level of stimulation required to cause a fiber to contract is called the threshold stimulus
Weakness of abdominal muscles can lead to a hernia
There are two types of smooth muscle visceral and multi unit
Cardiac muscle is also known as striated involuntary
The length/extension relationship states that the maximum strength a muscle can develop is related to the length of the fibers
Skeletal muscles have little effect on body temperature
Which of these glia cells are located in the peripheral nervous system
Schwann cells
The glia cells that help form the blood–brain barrier are the
What structure of the Schwann cell is essential to normal nerve growth and the regeneration of injured nerve fibers
The _______ of a neuron is a single process that usually extends from a tapered portion of the cell body
Which of the following is not a structural classification of neurons
A signal conduction route to and from the central nervous system is an
reflex arc
Bundles of myelinated fibers make up the
white matter of the nervous system
Neurons have
very limited capacity to repair themselves
What term describes the bundles of nerve fibers within the central nervous system