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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the genetic make-up of an organism.

holds the genes in the DNA string
the ability for a substance to stick to another substance, or object
a biological compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that is an important source of food and energy
protective outer covering: a tough semitransparent substance that forms part of the protective outer casing cuticle of some insects and other arthropods, and the cell walls of some fungi
1. joining or working together: the state or condition of joining or working together to form a united whole, or the tendency to do this
2. molecular attraction: the force of attraction by which the molecules of a solid or liquid tend to remain together
1. mixture: something made by combining two or more things
2. chemistry chemical substance: a substance formed by the chemical combination of elements in fixed proportions
condensation reaction
a chemical reaction in which two molecules or moieties (functional groups) combine to form one single molecule, together with the loss of a small molecule.
controlled experiment
the use of an independent variable and a controlled variable are used. the independent is compared to the controlled
covalent bond
chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms.
dehydration synthesis
a chemical reaction that involves the loss of water from the reacting molecule
double helix
double spiral structure of DNA: the molecular structure of DNA, consisting of a pair of polynucleotide strands connected by a series of hydrogen bonds and wound in opposing spirals
any substance that cannot be broken down any further from a chemical reaction
basic unit of heredity: the basic unit capable of transmitting characteristics from one generation to the next. It consists of a specific sequence of DNA or RNA that occupies a fixed position locus on a chromosome.
easily converted store of energy: a polysaccharide found in the liver and muscles that is easily converted to glucose for energy
reaction with water: a chemical reaction in which a compound reacts with water, causing decomposition and the production of two or more other compounds, e.g. in the conversion of starch to glucose
ionic bond
chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. Ionic bonds are formed between a cation, which is usually a metal, and an anion, which is usually a nonmetal.
chemically identical molecule with different structure: each of two or more molecules that have the same number of atoms but have different chemical structures and therefore different properties
amino acid
constituent of protein: a compound belonging to a class that contains an amino group. Amino acids make up proteins and are important components of cells. Some can be synthesized by the body nonessential amino acids and others must be obtained through the diet essential amino acids.
simplest sugar: a simple sugar such as glucose or fructose that cannot be broken down into simpler sugars
peptide bond
amino bond: a linkage formed between the amino group of one amino acid and the carboxylic acid group of another
compound with repeating small molecules: a natural or synthetic compound that consists of large molecules made of many chemically bonded smaller identical molecules, e.g. starch and nylon
polypeptide bond
amino bond: a linkage formed between the amino group of one amino acid and the carboxylic acid group of another
primary structure
the linear sequence of amino acids in a protein
complex natural compound: a complex natural substance that has a globular or fibrous structure composed of linked amino acids. Proteins are essential to the structure and function of all living cells and viruses.
organic sugar: a white crystalline sugar found in all living cells as a constituent of RNA and many other metabolically important compounds, including ribonucleotides, nucleic acids, and riboflavin.
carbohydrate substance: a natural substance composed of chains of glucose units, made by plants and providing a major energy source for animals. The two main components of starch are amylose and amylopectin.
organic compound: any of a large group of natural or synthetic fatty substances containing four carbon rings, including the sex hormones
natural fat in tissue: an ester formed from a molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acids, considered to have adverse effects on human health when consumed in excessive amounts. Source: animal and plant fats and oils.