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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

3 stages of cell communication?

Reception: where the target cell detects a signaling molecule.

Transduction: signal that can bring about a specific cellular response.

Response: a cellular effect brought about by the signaling molecule.

How G-protein coupled receptors receive cell signals and start transduction?

Receptor protein and G-protein are linked.The signal molecule then binds to the receptor and activates G-protein, which diffuses along membrane and binds to an enzyme.

Explain how receptor tyrosine kinase receive cell signals and start transduction.

Signal molecule binds to receptor. The tyrosine-kinase section is activated which activates a variety of specific relay proteins.

Explain how phosphorylation arcade amplifies a cell signal during transduction.

Each protein phosphorylation lends to a conformational change because of interactions. The proteins typically convert from inactive to active form.

-Explain how cell response in nucleus turns on genes.

- in cytoplasm activates enzymes.

-Signaling pathways ultimately regulate protein synthesis, by turning genes on and off.

-Cytoplasm regulates the activity of proteins then synthesis.

What is apoptosis?

Why is it important to normal functioning of multicellular organisms.

-Apoptosis is programmed cell death. If a cell is no longer needed, it will kill itself.

-Keeps things the same size

narrowing waist of sister chromatids



replicated strands of chromosomes


-Chromosome condenses

-Becomes tighter

-Nucleolus disappears


-Nuclear membrane fragments

-Spindles start to interact w/ chromosomes


-Centrioles have migrated to opposite poles.

-Copied chromosomes align in middle of the spindle


Chromosomes separate into 2 genetically identical groups and move to opposite ends of spindle.


Nuclear membranes form around each of the 2 sets of chromosomes. The chromosomes begin to spread out, and spindle begins to break down.


Cytoplasmic division. 2 daughter cells produced

Role of kinases and cyclin

-Control cell cycle

-Only active with connected to cyclin

-Give go ahead at G1 and G2

Disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction

sexual: longer, less offspring, 2 parents needed

asexual: no genetic diversity,

Advantages of sexual and asexual reproduction

sexual: genetic diversity,

asexual: shorter, only one parent needed, many offspring,

Role of meiosis and fertilization in sexually reproducing organisms.

Meiosis: cell division to produce haploid gametes

Fertilization: results in zygote

Role of homologous chromosomes in meiosis.


How chromosome # is reduced from diploid to haploid through stages of meiosis.

crossing over

3 differences between mitosis vs meiosis.

mitosis: Homologous chromosomes DO NOT pair up (M1), crossing over does not occur, asexual

meiosis: Homologous chromosomes pair up, crossing over occurs, sexual reproduction

Crossing over


Independent assortment


Random fertilization


How many chromosomes are in a human body cell?