• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

135 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ability to ward off pathogens that produce disease.
Lack of resistance.
Type of immunity that protects against wide range of pathogens.
Innate (nonspecific) immunity
Type of immunity that involves specific lymphocytes that combat a particular pathogen/foreign substance.
Adaptive (specific) immunity
What is the major difference b/w interstitial fluid & lymph?
Interstitial fluid is found b/w cells. Lymph is found within lymphatic vessels/tissue.
What are 4 functions of the lymphatic system?
1. Drain excess interstitial fluid & return to blood
2. Return leaked plasma proteins to blood
3. Transport lipids & lipid-soluble vitamins from GIT to blood
4. Carries out immune response (specific, nonspecific).
What tissues lack lymphatic capillaries?
Avascular (cartilage, skin, cornea of eye), CNS, parts of spleen, red bone marrow.
Interstitial fluid drains into ___ which merge to form larger ___ & these convey lymph in/out ___.
Lymph capillaries. Lymph vessels. Lymph nodes.
How do lymph vessels compare to vein structure?
Lymph vessels have thinner walls & more valves.
How are valves structured in lymph capillaries?
Overlapping endothelial cells work as 1-way valves. Open like swinging door when IF pressure is greater than lymph.
Anchoring filaments
Elastic fibers that extend out to attach lymph vessel to surrounding tissues. Help open endothelial spaces in vessels when there is excess fluid.
___ formed in the small intestine during digestion of fatty foods, and taken up by lymph vessels specifically known as ___ (lymphatic capillary that absorbs dietary fats in the villi of the small intestine)
Chyle / Lacteals
What are the 5 principle lymph trunks?
Lumbar, intestinal, bronchomediastinal, subclavian, jugular trunks.
Lymph trunk that drains lower limbs, wall/viscera of pelvis, kidneys, adrenal glands, abdominal wall.
Lumbar trunk
Lymph trunk that drains stomach, intestines, pancreas, spleen, part of liver.
Intestinal trunk
Lymph trunk that drains thoracic wall, lungs, heart.
Bronchomediastinal trunk
Lymph trunk that drains upper limbs.
Subclavian trunk
Lymph trunk that drains head, neck.
Jugular trunk
Main collecting duct of lymphatic system which begins as dilation called ___. Collects from L side of head, neck, chest, L upper limb, entire body below ribs.
Thoracic duct. Chyle cistern.
Main duct that collects from upper R side of body.
Right lymphatic duct
Where do the 2 main lymph ducts drain into?
Junction of subclavian vein & internal jugular vein. (L - thoracic duct, R - right lymphatic duct)
Which lymphatic vessels empty into cisterna chyli, & which duct receives lymph from cisterna chyli?
L/R lumbar trunks & intestinal trunk empty into cisterna chyli, which drain into thoracic duct.
What are the 2 pumps that result in milking of lymph?
Skeletal mm, respiratory.
Primary lymphatic organs are areas where stem cells divide to become immunocompetent. List 2.
Red bone marrow, thymus.
Secondary lymphatic organs/tissue are sites where most immune responses occur. List 3.
Lymph nodes, spleen, lymph nodules (tissue)
The thymus gland lies b/w what 2 structures? What is its function?
Heart & sternum. Function - site of T-cell maturation.
Thymus has 2 ___ separated by capsule w/ extensions called ___ that divide lobe into lobules.
Lobes. Trabeculae.
The outer cortex of thymus lobules contain what structures? What is its function?
T cells, dendritic cells, epithelial cells, macrophages. Site of T-cell maturation (help from dendritic cells).
What does the medulla of thymus lobules contain that the cortex doesn't?
Thymic (Hassal's) corpuscles - possibly site of T-cell death.
When is the thymus gland the largest in life? What is it replaced by & when?
Largest in infants. After puberty it is replaced by adipose, areolar CT.
Where are large groups of lymph nodes found?
Near mammary glands, axillae, groin.
Encapsulated oval structures located along lymphatic vessels. Approx 600 in body. Contain T-cells, macrophages, follicular dendritic cells, B cells.
Lymph nodes
Capsule surrounding lymph nodes extend projections called ___ into node to divide it into compartments.
Capsule, trabeculae, reticular fibers, fibroblasts constitute ___ of lymph node.
Stroma (supporting CT)
Functioning part of lymph node.
Area of lymph node that has lymphatic follicles (nodules) which are aggregates of B cells & have germinal centers.
Outer cortex
Area of lymph node that has T cells, dendritic cells which present antigen & cause T cells to proliferate & migrate to infection area.
Inner cortex
Area of lymph node that has B cells, macrophages, antibody producing plasma cells.
Depression in lymph node where efferent lymphatic vessels emerge & where BV enter/leave node.
What cells destroy foreign substances by phagocytosis? What cells destroy by immune responses?
Macrophages. Lymphocytes.
What is the route of the lymph through lymph node (5 steps)?
Afferent vessels, subcapsular sinus, trabecular sinus, medullary sinus, efferent vessels.
Foreign substances filtered by lymph nodes are trapped by ___.
Nodal reticular fibers
Lymph nodes are site of proliferation for what 2 cell types?
Plasma cells, T-cells.
Largest single mass of lymphatic tissue in the body.
What region is the spleen found in the body?
Left hypochondriac region (b/w stomach & diaphragm).
What travels through the spleen's hilum?
Splenic artery, vein, efferent lymph vessels.
Spleen's white pulp is formed by ___ arranged around central arteries.
Lymphatic tissue
What are the 2 types of lymphocytes in the spleen's white pulp & their functions?
T-lymphocytes attack/destroy antigens in blood. B-lymphocytes become antibody producing plasma cells (antibodies inactivate antigens in blood).
What is the role of macrophages in the white pulp vs. red pulp of the spleen?
White pulp - destroy antigens in blood via phagocytosis. Red pulp - remove worn-out/defective RBCs, WBCs, platelets.
Spleen's red pulp consists of ___ filled w/ blood & splenic cords consisting of what 5 cell types?
Venous sinuses. RBCs, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, granulocytes.
Which part of spleen produces blood cells in fetus during 2nd trimester pregnancy?
Red pulp
Oval shaped concentrations of lymphatic tissue not surrounded by a capsule.
Lymphatic nodules
Lymphatic nodules scattered through ___ of mucus membranes lining what areas? Named mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT).
Lamina propria. GI tract, respiratory airways, urinary & reproductive tracts.
Lymphatic nodules in ileum of small intestine.
Peyer's patches
Groups of large lymphatic nodules embedded in mucous membrane at junction of oral cavity & pharynx.
What are the 3 tonsils & which is commonly removed?
Pharyngeal (adenoid), palatine (removed often), lingual.
List body structures/substances that aid as first line of defense.
Skin, mucous membranes, cilia in respiratory tract, gastric juice, lysozome in tears/perspiration, saliva, urine, defecation, vomiting, vaginal secretions.
What are 5 types of 2nd line of defense?
Internal antimicrobial substances, phagocytes, NK cells, inflammation, fever.
What are the 4 types of antimicrobial substances?
Interferons, complement, iron-binding proteins, antimicrobial proteins.
Type of antimicrobial substance produced by lymphocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts infected w/ viruses. Bind to surrounding uninfected cells which induces antiviral protein synthesis & interferes w/ viral replication.
Interferons (IFNs)
Group of 30 proteins in blood plasma & cell membranes that when activated, enhance certain immune, allergic, inflammatory reactions.
Complement system
Type of antimicrobial substance that inhibits growth of bacteria by reducing amount of iron available.
Iron-binding proteins
Type of antimicrobial substance that have broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity (eg. Dermicidin, defensins, cathelicidins, thrombocidin).
Antimicrobial proteins
Lymphocytes that lack membrane molecules that identify T & B cells. Attack cells that display abnormal plasma membrane proteins.
Natural killer cells
What 2 types of toxic substances are found in granules released by NK cells?
Perforins (punch holes in target cell, causing it to burst), granzymes (force cell to undergo apoptosis).
What are 2 types of phagocytes?
Neutrophils, macrophages.
What are 2 classes of macrophages?
Wandering, fixed.
What are the 5 phases of phagocytosis?
Chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing.
Anything that can't be digested in phagocyte remains in ___.
Residual bodies
What are reasons why a microbe can evade phagocytosis?
Capsule formation, toxin production, interference w/ lysozyme secretion, ability to counter oxidants produced by phagocytes.
What factors may stimulate chemotaxis?
Microbes, WBCs, damaged tissue, activated complement system
Nonspecific, defensive response occuring due to pathogens, abrasions, chemical irritations, distortions, extreme temps, disturbances of cells.
What are 5 symptoms of inflammation?
Swelling, heat, a loss of function, redness, pain (SHARP)
What are 3 basic stages of inflammation?
Vasodilation & increased permeability of blood vessels, phagocyte migration, tissue repair.
Substance released from mast cells causing vasodilation, increased permeability of vessels. Contributes to inflammation.
Polypeptide that induces vasodilation, increases permeability, acts as chemotaxic agents (bradykinin). Contributes to inflammation.
Lipid released by damaged cells that intensify effects of histamine & kinins. Stimulate emigration of phagocytes through capillary walls. Contributes to inflammation.
Substance produced by basophils, mast cells and cause increased permeability, act as chemotaxic agents, help w/ adherence of phagocytes to pathogens. Contributes to inflammation.
Substance that stimulates histamine release, attract neutrophils, promote phagocytosis, destroy bacteria.
What are 5 substances that contribute to inflammation?
Histamines, kinins, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, complement.
How long does it take for phagocytes to arrive to area of inflammation?
Within hour
What cell is the first responder to a site of inflammation? What cell comes next & cleans up the dead cells above?
Neutrophils. Monocytes become wandering macrophages.
Increase in WBCs in blood.
Pocket of dead phagocytes, damaged tissue & fluid that occurs in most inflammatory responses.
Excessive accumulation of pus in a confined space.
What usually causes fever? How does a fever affect body processes?
Caused when thermostat of hypothalamus is reset due to bacterial toxins, viruses. Intensifies effect of interferons, stops growth of microbes, speeds repair reactions.
What 2 properties distinguish adaptive immunity vs. innate?
Specificity, memory.
T-cells & B-cells derive from stem cells located in ___.
Bone marrow
What is the difference in which T-cells & B-cells mature?
B cells mature in bone marrow (continues thru life). T cells develop from pre-T cells that migrate to thymus (most arise before puberty but continues thru life).
Ability to carry out adaptive immune responses.
Molecules capable of recognizing specific antigens.
Antigen receptors
T-cells exit thymus as what 2 types of cells?
Helper (CD4) T cell , Cytotoxic (CD8) T cell
What are 2 types of adaptive immunity?
Cell-mediated immunity, antibody-mediated immunity.
Type of adaptive immunity where cytotoxic T-cells attack other cells (antigens). Ex, INTRAcellular pathogens - fungi, parasites, viruses, some cancer cells, foreign tissue transplants.
Cell-mediated immunity
Type of adaptive immunity - B cells transform into plasma cells & secrete antibodies/immunoglobins that attach to antigens. Helper T-cells aid in both cell/antibody-mediated responses. Effective against antigens dissolved in fluid & EXTRAcellular pathogens - bacteria.
Antibody-mediated immunity
Process by which a lymphocyte proliferate & differentiate in response to a specific antigen.
Clonal selection
Population of identical cells that can recognize the same specific antigen as original lymphocyte.
Where does clonal selection of lymphocytes occur?
Secondary lymphatic organs/tissues.
A lymphocyte that undergoes clonal selection gives rise to what 2 major cell types?
Effector & memory cells
What are 3 types of effector cells vs. memory cells? What is the difference in their life spans?
EFFECTOR - Active helper T-cell, active cytotoxic T-cell, plasma cell - die after immune response. MEMORY - memory helper T-cell, memory cytotoxic T-cell, memory B cells - long life span.
Chemical substances (usually protein) recognized as foreign by antigen receptors. Immunogenic & reactive.
Antigen's ability to provoke immune response by stimulating production of specific antibodies/T cells.
Ability of antigen to react w/ specific antibodies/cells it provoked.
Which parts of bacterial structures are antigenic?
Flagella, capsules, cell walls, bacterial toxins.
Specific portions of antigen molecules that trigger immune responses.
Epitopes (antigenic determinants)
What are 3 routes that antigens use to get to lymphatic tissue?
Enter bloodstream & get trapped in spleen, penetrate skin & enter lymphatic vessels & lodge in lymph nodes, get trapped in mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue.
Small substance w/ no immunogenicity but can stimulate immune response (reactivity) if attached to larger carrier molecule.
Process where gene segments are put together in different combos as lymphocytes are developing in red bone marrow & thymus.
Genetic recombination
Transmembrane glycoproteins that are self-antigens unique to each person's cells. MHC class 1 found in all cells except RBCs. Aid in detection of foreign invaders.
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
What is the difference in which T-cells & B-cells recognize foreign antigens?
B cells recognize & bind to antigens in ECF (blood plasma, lymph). T cells only recognize fragments of antigenic proteins that have been processed/presented in association w/ MHC (self-antigen).
Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) process (exogenous/endogenous) antigens & present them w/ MHC (class 1/2) molecules to T cells. After presenting antigen, APCs migrate to lymph nodes.
Exogenous. MHC class 2.
What are 3 types of antigen-presenting cells? Where are they located in the body?
Macrophages, B cells, dendritic cells. Skin, mucus membranes of respiratory tract, GIT, urinary, reproductive, lymph nodes.
What are the 7 steps of processing/presenting an exogenous antigen?
Ingestion of antigen. Digestion of antigen into peptide fragments. Synthesis of MHC-2 molecules. Packaging of MHC-2 molecules. Fusion of vesicles. Binding of peptide fragments to MHC-2 molecules. Insertion of antigen-MHC-2 complexes into plasma membrane.
(Exogenous/endogenous) antigens are synthesized within body & include viral proteins or proteins produced by cancer cells.
What are the 5 steps of processing/presenting an endogenous antigen?
Digestion of antigen into peptide fragments, synthesis of MHC-1 molecules, binding of peptide fragments to MHC-1 molecules, packaging of antigen-MHC-1 molecules into vesicle, insertion of antigen-MHC-1 complexes into plasma membrane.
Small protein hormones needed for many normal cell functions such as cell growth, differentiation. Secreted by various types of cells, including lymphocytes & APCs.
What 2 signals activate a T-cell to undergo clonal selection?
1) Antigen recognition by T-cell receptor w/ CD4 or CD8 protein. 2) Costimulation by cytokines or pair of plasma membrane molecules (one on T-cell, one on antigen-presenting cell).
Recognition & binding of T-cell receptor/antigen without costimulation leads to prolonged state of inactivity called ___ in T & B cells.
In clonal selection of helper T-cells, what is the effector & memory cell?
Active helper T-cell (secretes interleukin-2 & other cytokines), memory helper T-cell.
In clonal selection of cytotoxic T-cells, what is the effector & memory cell?
Active cytotoxic T-cell (attack infected body cells), memory cytotoxic T-cell.
What are 4 ways cytotoxic T-cells can kill cells displaying microbial antigen?
Granzymes (apoptosis - phagocytes eat released microbes), perforin (cytolysis) & granulysin (destroys microbe), lymphotoxin (target cell DNA fragmentation).
Success of proposed organ/tissue transplant depends on ___.
Process where cytotoxic T-cells, macrophages, NK cells recognize tumor antigens on cancerous cells & destroy tumor cell.
Immunological surveillance
In clonal selection of B-cells, what is the effector & memory cell?
Plasma cells, memory B cells
Of T-cells & B-cells, which one leaves tissue & which stays put?
T cells leave tissue, B cells stay put.
Protein that can combine specifically w/ epitope that triggered its production.
Which part of the antibody is the antigen binding site?
Tip of heavy/light chains have variable region.
Which part of the antibody gives us the 5 classes of immunoglobulins?
Constant region
What are 6 functions of antibodies?
Neutralize antigen, immobilize bacteria (cilia/flagella), agglutination & precipitation (clumping of antigens), complement activation, enhances phagocytosis (stem waves like flag).
What are the 3 pathways that activate the complement system?
Classical (Ab bind to antigens), alternative (microbe lipid-carb complex binds to complement factors B,D,F), lectin (macrophages causes liver to produce lectins that bind to microbes).
What 4 results occur because of complement system?
Phagocytosis, cytolysis, inflammation, chemotaxis
Immunological memory is due to presence of long-lived ___ & ___.
Antibodies, lymphocytes.
Is self-recognition of T-cells (positive/negative) selection? Where does it occur? What happens?
Positive selection. Thymic cortex - pre-T cells that recognize MHC on epithelial cells survive.
Is self-tolerance of T-cells (positive/negative) selection? Where does it occur? What happens?
Negative selection. Junction cortex & medulla of thymus. T-cells that recognize self-peptide/self-antigen are deleted (apoptosis) or stay in anergy (alive, unresponsive). Those that don't respond survive.
What occurs w/ aging of immune system?
More susceptible to infections/malignancies, response to vaccines decrease, more autoantibodies produced. Cellular/humoral responses decrease.