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37 Cards in this Set

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Explain how anatomy and physiology are related.

Anatomy is structure or form; physiology is function; physiology depends on anatomy.

Describesome methods of examining a living person.

inspection - looking at the surface


dissection - cutting and separating of tissue palpation - feeling structures with fingertips (pulse and lymph nodes)


auscultation - listening to natural sounds of the body (heart, lungs)


percussion - tapping on body to listen to the sound of abnormalities

List essential life functions

Organization


Cells


Metabolism


Growth


Development


Excitability


Homeostasis


Reproduction



Define homeostasis. Explain the importance of homeostasis to survival.

The ability to maintain internal stability. The tendency of the body to seek and maintain a condition of balance or equilibrium within its internal environment and the loss of homeostatic control tends to cause illness or death.

Negative feedback

process in which the body senses change and creates mechanisms to reverse it




- maintaining the room temperature



- maintaining your body temperature (shivering when cold, or sweating when hot)



Positive feedback

normal way of producing rapid change is a self-amplifying cycle in whichphysiological change leads to an even greater change in the same direction.

normal way of producing rapid change is a self-amplifying cycle in which physiological change leads to an even greater change in the same direction.

List the levels of human structure and the characteristics of each and rank from largest to smallest

Organism – composed oforgan systems – singly complete individual


Organ system – composed of organs – group of organs that carry about a basic function· Organ - composed of tissue – two or more tissue that work together to carry out a basic function


Tissue – mass of cells that forms a discrete region of an organ and performs a specific function


Cells – smallest unit of an organism that carries out all the basic functions of life. Nothing simpler than a cell is considered alive. Organelles – microscopic structures carry out a cells individual function


Molecules – organelles and other cellular components


Atoms – molecules composed of at least two atoms (particle).

Describe the anatomical position. Explain the importance of this position.

a person standing upright, feet flat on the floor, arms at side lengths with palms facing observer.




– to be able to describe areas of the body and what position.

Define and explain anatomical planes of the body. Differentiate the mid-sagittal plane from other sagittal planes.

Anatomical planes – many views of the body; sagittal plane: extends vertically and divides the body into right and left portions. The median sagittal plane – passes through the midline of the body and divides it into equal right and left halves. Transverse – horizontal upper and lower portions ( MRI CT Scan)


Frontal - extends vertically, but is perpendicular to the sagittal plane and divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back).

Identify and describe the 4 abdominal quadrants and the 9 abdominal regions.

Abdominal quadrants- right upper quad, left upper quad, right lower, left lower Abdominal regions - Right hypochondriac region – liver and gall bladder


Left hypochondriac region - 10th rib


Right lumbar region – ascending large intestine


Left lumbar region – descending large intestine


Right Inguinal region / Left Inguinal region


Epigastric region - stomach


Umbilical region – transverse colon large intestine / small intestine


Hypogastric region – urinary bladder

Identify external body regions.

Describe their relative locations to each other using directional terminology.

Identify the locations of the major body cavities

Describe the diaphragm. Which cavities does it separate?

Diaphragm – muscular sheet in the thoracic cavity, that seperates the thoracic cavity above and abdominopelvic cavity below

Describe the peritoneum. Differentiate between the parietal and visceral peritoneum.

Parietal is always further from the organ where visceral is always the closest. The parietal peritoneum lines the abdominal wall of the abdominal cavity.




* Side note - Peritoneum –abdominopelvic cavity – serous membrane

Identify prefixes, roots, and suffixes

At least one root (stem) that bears the core meaning of the word.


A prefix may be present at the beginning of a word to modify its core meaning


A prefix may be present at the beginning of a word to modify its core meaning

Singular / Plural forms

Directional Terms in Human Anatomy

Define element

A chemical element is the simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties.

Recognize elements of the human body from their chemical symbols



Describe atomic structure

The make-up of each chemical element. Consist of a unique atom; which consist of; nucleus, composted of positive charged protons, and uncharged neutrons.

Distinguish between chemical elements and compounds.

A chemical element is the simplest form of matter that can be broken down into unique chemical properties. (water – broken down into hydrogen and oxygen) A chemical bond (compounds) – Molecules composed of two or more different elements are called compounds.

Define isotope

An atom that has the same number of protons as other atoms of an element but has a different number of neutrons in its nucleus.

Distinguish between ions, electrolytes, and free radicals

IONS – charged particles with unequal numbers of protons and electrons. ELECTROLYTES – are salts that ionize in water and form solutions capable of producing electricity. FREE RADICALS – are chemical particles with an odd number of electrons.

Ionization

IONS – charged particles with unequal
     numbers of protons and electrons.
 ELECTROLYTES – are salts that ionize in
     water and form solutions capable of producing electricity.
 FREE RADICALS – are chemical particles
     with an ...

Attraction of these two oppositely charged ions to each other then constitutes an ionic bond.

As you learn the common atoms and molecules in the body, learn their charges

Define the types of chemical bonds.

Another type of bond is covalent where 2 or more atoms actually share electrons trying to stabilize their outermost shell.




If the atoms sharing the electrons are the same size, they share the electrons equally and those bonds are non-polar covalent bonds




This unequally shared bond is called a polar


the hydrogen is slightly positive and the larger atom is slightly negative. That takes us to the 3rd type of bonding, hydrogen bonds covalent bond.

List the biologically important properties of water. Define hydrophilic and hydrophobic.

Water is natures most versatile solvent, meaning that water is capable of having more solutes(substances) dissolve in water than any other liquid. Which is why water in our body is able to carry and dissolve most substances through our blood stream


Particles that are water-soluble (dissolve in water) are hydrophilic. Fat-soluble molecules do not dissolve in water and are hydrophobic.

Define mixture and distinguish between three types of mixtures

MIXTURE – consists of substances that are physically blended but not chemically combined. TYPES OF MIXTURES: Solution – is transparent. Dissolves


Colloid – cloudy, larger mixture of larger particles


Suspensions – mixture of particles larger than 100nm

Define acid and base and interpret the pH scale.

Neutral is 7.0. Below 7.0 is acidic, above 7.0 is alkaline. ACID – is any proton donor, a molecule that releases a proton (H+) in water.


BASE – is a proton acceptor


PH Scale – Measures acid (the proton H+)

Discuss the relevance of polymers and macromolecules to biology, and explain how they are formed and broken by dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis. Define polymer and monomer.

Dehydration synthesis (making a larger molecule) requires energy input (ATP). Hydrolysis (breaking a molecule into two smaller molecules) releases energy (ATP). The body uses dehydration synthesis to make the substances it needs. The body uses hydrolysis to provide the energy needed to perform dehydration synthesis. Energy is stored in the chemical bonds of organic molecules (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins). POLYMER – Most macromolecules; larger biological molecules, like starch consist of repeating subunits. MONOMER – molecules made up of repetitive series of identical or similar subunits

Define carbohydrate, lipid, protein, and nucleic acid. Describe the structural properties that distinguish carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids from each other.

CARBOHYDRATE – source of energy that can be quickly mobilized


LIPIDS – Fats and oils


PROTEIN – polymer of amino acids; nucleic acid




(study handouts)

Define peptide and denaturation.

PEPTIDE – amino acids linked together by dehydration synthesis form peptides DENATURATION – change with loss of function

Explain how enzymes function. Define substrate and active site.

Enzymes function – proteins that function as biological catalyst chemical that enables any other chemical reaction to go faster. SUBSTRATE – defines the substance that enzymes acts on ACTIVE Site – enzyme has surface pockets called active sites.

Describe the structure, production, and function of ATP.

ATP is an energy transfer molecule, not an energy storage molecule. Energy for physiological process (metabolism) is stored in the chemical bonds of organic molecules (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins). Adenosine Triphosphate – functions as the bodies most important energy transfer molecule.

Define energy, potential energy and kinetic energy

Energy – capacity to do work, move matter or change its structure.


Potential Energy – is stored energy, energy that is not doing work


Kinetic energy – energy of motion or change

Define metabolism and its two subdivisions.

Catabolism is breaking down (making smaller molecules) to release energy. Anabolism is building (making larger molecules) to store energy.