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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Definition of anxiety

By who?

-ve emotional state 'nervousness and worry' and linked with activation/arousal of the body

weinbourg and gould 2011

Two types of anxiety?

Cognitive- negative expectations and cognitive concerns.

Somatic-physiological arousal.

What is the main theory behind anxiety? main distinction of theory?

Multi-dimensional anxiety theory (Martens et al 1990)

big distinction between cognitive and somatic anxiety.

three statements from martens et al (1990) multiD anxiety theory?

-ve linear rel between CA and performance

inverted U rel SA and performance

SA declines after beginning of performance, but

CA remains high if low confidence.

what are the two other anxiety theories?

inverted u hypothesis (Yerkes, 1908)

catastrophe theory (Hard, 1987)

? researched ? 3 factors that affect the change of anxiety?

Hanton et al 2004

Intensity- how strong are symptoms?

Frequency- time spent attending symptoms of SA/CA anxiety?

Direction- facilitating/debilitating effects?

How did Hanton et al (2004) measure the direction, frequency and intensity of CA + SA?

Competitive state anxiety inventory (CSAI-2)

What did Hanton et al 2004 find?

No significant change in anxiety in both terms of intensity and frequency

? needs to be known to create successful intervention?

cause of anxiety.

deinfition of stress?

? defined?

significant imbalance between demand and response capabilities, under circumstances in which if the demand isn't met= important consequences

McGrath et al (1970)

What type of process is stress?

transactional dependent on meaning of stimulus--> to perceiver.

What is the main model to do with stress?

? created it

transactional model of stress and coping

Lazarus, 1999

Explain the primary appraisal section of TMSC;

Primary appraisal- significance of the stressor

Relational meaning- personal significance of the event and the consequences related.

Explain the secondary appraisal section of the TMSC;

2ndry- evaluation of the controllability of the stressor presented.

Coping efforts- actual strategies used to mediate the primary and secondary appraisal.

Define coping

? defined it

the process of constantly changing an individuals own cognitive and behavioral efforts in order to manage internal and external demands.

Lazarus + Folkman, 1984

list categories of coping;

problem focused coping = alter manage the problem that is causing the stress

Emotion-focused coping = regulating emotional response to problem that causes stress.

Coping mechanisms of stress;

thought control

task focus

self talk

social suport

who conducted study on undergrads looking at stressors, coping + coping effectiveness?

Nicholls 2007

three things nicholls et al 2007 were observing?



coping effectiveness

Stressors, coping and coping strategies were being observed as a function of ? 3 things;


type of sport

skill level

What two main things did nicholls et al 2007 find?

team players reported a larger number of stressors- due to them playing in a team environment

National/international athletes reported a greater use of visualization and blocking strategies to cope with stress compared to lesser skilled athletes.