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23 Cards in this Set

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Penicillins
Family:
Work on:
Targets:
Inactivated by:
Semisynthetics:
Family: Beta-lactam

Work on: Gram +, some Gram -, and some Chlamydiae

Work by: interfering with cell wall synthesis; cause lysing

Inactivated by: beta-lactamases (penicillinase)

Semisynthetic: Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Carbenicillin
Sulfonamides
Work on:
Targets:
Example:
Work on: Gram +, -

Targets: specific metabolic reactions
Out-compete essential folic acid components for binding sites in a bacterial enzyme. Prevents acid synthesis and DNA replication.

Example: sulfanilamide
Isoniazid
Works on:
Targets:
Works on: mycobacteria

Targets: interferes with cell wall synthesis
Quinolones
Works on:
Derivatives and what they treat:
Example:
Work on: Gram +, -

Derivatives and what they treat: fluoroquinonlones are used to treat urinary tract infections

Example: Ciprofloxacin
Cephalosporins
Family:
Alternative to:
Works on:
Target:
Family: Beta-lactam

Alternative to: Penicillin

Works on: Broader spectrum than penicillin

Target: cell wall synthesis
Monobactams
Family:
Works on:
Family: Beta-lactam

Works on: aerobic, gram - rods
Carbapenems
Works on:
Target:
Example:
Works on: Gram +, -, broad spectrum

Target: cell wall synthesis

Example: Imipenem
Vancomycin
Works on:
Targets:
Side effects:
Works on: Gram +, staphylococcus

Targets: cell wall synthesis

Side effects: damage to ears and kidneys
Bacitracin
Family
Targets:
Note:
Component of:
Family: polypeptide

Targets: interferes with transport of cell wall precursors through the cell membrane

Note: toxic internally, used topically

Component of: Neosporin
Polymyxin
Targets:
Examples:
Component of:
Targets: increase membrane permeability of gram - rods

Examples: Neomycin, polymyxin B

Component of: Neopsorin
Aminoglycosides
Works on:
Target:
Examples and uses:
Works on: Mycobacteria, gram -

Target: Attaches to bacterial ribosomes, blocking translation of RNA into proteins

Examples and Uses: Streptomycin-tuberculosis
Gentamicin-urinary
Neomycin-intestinal and ointment
Kanamycin-wounds
Chloramphenicol
Works on:
Reserved for:
Side effects:
Works on: wide variety of bacteria and some rickettsia and fungi

Reserved for: meningitis, cholera, typhoid and typhus fevers, Rocky Mountain spotted fever

Side effects: aplastic anemia and gray syndrome
Tetracycline
Works on:
Targets:
Example:
Side Effects:
Works on: gram +,-, Chlamydiae, Rickettsiae

Targets: protein synthesis

Example: Doxycycline

Side Effects: Destroy intestinal microbiota and cause staining of teeth
Erythromycin
Family:
Works on:
Family: macrolide
Works on: gram +
Clindamycin
Type:
Targets:
Side Effects:
Type: semisynthetic

Targets: protein synthesis

Side effects: Pseudomembranous colitis can occur if microbiota are killed, allowing Clostridium difficile to flourish
Streptogramins
Work on:
Target:
Work on: Gram +

Target: Protein synthesis
Oxazolidiones
Work on:
Target:
Work on: gram +, including Staphylococcus aureus
Target: protein synthesis
Rifampin
Targets:
Effective against:
Side effect:
Targets: RNA synthesis

Effective against: tuberculosis, leprosy, meningitis

Side effect: can cause liver damage
Four mechanisms of antibiotic resistance
Antibiotic inactivation
Target modification
Active export of antibiotics
Alternate metabolic pathway
Misuse of antibiotics
Unnecessarily large doses, Promotion by companies, patient pressure, alternative to costly tests, patients don't finish, livestock
Alternatives to antibiotics
new targets in pathogens (lipopolysaccharides), new and unique antibiotics, bacteriophages, education
Who discovered chemotherapy? What did they discover in addition
Paul Ehrlich originated selective toxicity

Ehrlich and Sahachiro Hata discovered arsphenamine (Salvarsan) against syphilis spirochete
Chemotherapeutic index
toxic dose/therapeutic dose