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22 Cards in this Set

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Sulfamide Mechanism

-are structural analogs of PABA


-competitive substrate for the PABA enzyme


-inhibits Folate synthesis




-inhibits dihydropteroate synthase

Sulfamide restrictions to usefulness

-Crystalluria - crystals form in urinary tract


-Allergic reactions in 5% of population


-bacteria develop resistance

Sulfamide Uses

-UTI's


-meningococcal infections


-chlamydial infections

Trimethoprim Mechanism

-suppression of Folate Reductase


-next enzyme down path from Sulfamides

Cephalosporin Restrictions of Usefulness

-allergic reactions (rashes, anaphylactic shock)


-toxic levels = bone marrow suppression

Cephalosporin 1st Gen

-Effective against Gram+

-minimal Gram- effectiveness


-sensitive to penicillinase




-Not used for active infections except in case of penicillin allergy


-used as anti-bacterial prophylactic prior to surgery

Cephalosporin 2nd Gen

-increase penicillinase resistance


-increase Gram- effectiveness


-increase CNS entry




-Not used for active infections except in case of penicillin allergy


-used as anti-bacterial prophylactic prior to surgery

Cephalosporin 3rd Gen

-increase penicillinase resistance


-increase Gram- & Gram+ effectiveness


-increase CNS entry


-increase spectrum of action




-used for Meningitis


-Gonorrhea


-Influenza


-Salmonella

Cephalosporin 4th Gen

-increase penicillinase resistance


-increase Gram- & Gram+ effectiveness


-increase CNS entry


-increase spectrum of action




-used for Meningitis


-Gonorrhea


-Influenza


-Salmonella

Cephalosporin 5th Gen

-increase penicillinase resistance


-increase Gram- & Gram+ effectiveness


-increase spectrum of action




-Used for Methicillin-resistant Gram+ bacteria


-Used for MRSA

Vancomycin Mechanism

-Inhibits cell wall synthesis


-Inhibits peptidoglycan




-Bacteriocidal for dividing bacteria


-Otherwise Bacteriostatic

Vancomycin Spectrum of Action

-Gram+


-Surprisingly weak against Gram-, considering lack of sensitivity to Penicillinase

Vancomycin Restrictions to Usefulness

-skin rashes


-anaphylactic shock


-ototoxicity (deafness, balance issues)


-nephrotoxicity (renal dysfunction)

50s Inhibitor Toxic Effects

-GI disturbances


-Liver Injury (drug-induced inhibition of bile secretion, backs up into liver)

Clindamycin (50s) Side Effect

-Severe colitis (inflammation of large intestine)


-Clostridium difficile: often fatal

Aminoglycoside Spectrum of Action

-broad-spectrum


-Gram- more sensitive than Gram+


-Bacteriocidal

Aminoglycoside Restrictions of Usefulness

-Damage to 8th cranial nerve


-hearing loss


-vestibular (balance) disturbances


-can lead to irreversible hearing loss in fetus




-Renal toxicity


-muscle weakness


-rapidly developing bacterial resistance

Tetracycline Absorption, Metabolism & excretion

-usually given orally


-75% crosses GI tract




-calcium, magnesium, or aluminum in the stomach can slow absorption b/c drug binds to calcium


-tendency to chelate w/ calcium of developing teeth & bones

Tetracycline Restrictions of Usefulness

-alteration of GI bacteria by unabsorbed (bound to calcium) tetracycline can lead to suprainfections of the GI tract)




-large doses/prolonged use = liver damage


-teeth discoloration (binding to tooth calcium)


-renal damage


-ototoxicity (balance problems)

Targeting Bacterial DNA Topoisomerase

-inhibit DNA maintenance & replication




-Quinolone antibiotics

Quinolone Restrictions to Usefulness

-improper bone/cartilage development of Fetus


-Nephrotoxicity (crystalluria)


-CNS effects (dizziness, light headed, ext.)


-GI Tract irritation

Quinolone Uses

-UTI's


-Bacterial Diarrhea


-Infections of Bone, Joints, soft tissue


-Anthrax