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36 Cards in this Set

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Anthony Wallace definition on religion
the belief and ritual concerned with supernatural beings, powers, and forces.
Reese definition on religion
focuses on bodies of people who gather together regularly for worship, emphasizing the collective, shared, and enacted practices of religion.
Religion is a cultural what?
E. B. Tylor's Three categories of Religion.
animism, polytheism, monotheism
seen as the most primitive and is defined as a belief in souls (or spiritual beings) that derives from the first attempt to explain dreams and like phenomena.
belief in multiple gods.
belief in a single, all-powerful deity.
Components of Religion
1. Beliefs about nature and character of SUPERNATURAL POWERS (forces and beings).
2. TEACHINGS OR TRADITIONS which tell of these supernatural powers.
3. RITUALS intended to include or direct these powers for the benefit of the group.
(aboriginal Polynesia) a belief in an immanent supernatural domain or life force, potentially subject to human manipulation for good or evil purposes.
Mana has also been described as a
sacred impersonal force that is much like the Western concept of luck.
Supernatural beings, unlike supernatural forces:
Usually have qualities such as:
a bodily form,
some way of appearing before people,
a personality, and
a fairly predictable way of responding to human activities.
Individualistic Cults
emphasize direct, personal interactions between people and the supernatural.(one on one)
vision quests
an active search or quest to acquire a vision.
Shamanistic Cults
ome individuals are believed to have contact with the supernatural that ordinary people lack.
Shamans (or medicine men)
are part-time religious intermediaries who may act as curers.
Communal Cults
members of a particular group gather periodically for rituals that are believed to benefit the group as a whole.
Ancestral Cults
Beliefs and rituals surrounding the interactions between the living and their departed relatives.
The belief that human groups have a special mystical relationship with natural objects, such as animals, plants, and sometimes, nonliving things.
Ecclesiastical Cults
the practice of religion is carried out by formal, specialized officials (priests) who perform rituals that that benefit the society as a whole. FULL TIME SPECIALISTS.
Theoretical Functions of Religion
Intellectual, Psychological, Social
humans demand explanations for the world around them.
(Malinowski) helps people cope in times of trouble, stress, and anxiety. On the one hand it does, but on the other it can create fears and anxieties that would not otherwise exist.
instills and maintains common values, leads to increased conformity to cultural norms, promotes cohesion and cooperation.
the performance of rites and spells intended to cause supernatural forces to harm others.
Sorcery is based on two logical principles.
imitative principle, contagious principle
imitative principle
the premise that like produces like (voodoo doll).
contagious principle
assumption that power comes from contact. Things once in contact with someone can be used in rites and spells to make things happen to that person (hair & nail clippings, bodily excretions, clothing, etc.)
the use of psychic power to cause harm to others.
Navajo Witchcraft Beliefs
associate witches with the worst imaginable sins (incest, bestiality, necrophilia, cannibalism).
Nyakyusa of Tanzania Witchcraft Beliefs
motivated by lust for food, witches suck dry the udders of cattle and devour internal organs of humans while they sleep.
Azande of Southern Sudan Witchcraft Beliefs
witches possess a substance that leaves their bodies at night and eats the flesh and internal organs of their victims.
Ibibio of Nigeria Witchcraft Beliefs
witches remove the spiritual essence of their enemies and place it in an animal who dies when the witch slaughters and eats the animal.
cultural mixes, including religious blends, that emerge when two or more cultural traditions come into continuous firsthand contact.
(mixtures of African, Native American and Catholic beliefs).
Cargo Cults
attempt to explain European domination and wealth and to achieve similar success magically by mimicking European behavior and symbols.