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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

2 Factors that make a hominid

1. Loss of CP3 complex

2. Bipedalism

The 1st Hominid? How long ago and defining factor?

Sahelanthropus tchadensis ; 7 MYA ; A forward position of the foramen magnum

What is australopithecine? Characteristics & Nickname

"Southern Ape" ; small brained bipedal ; cranial capacity = 500cm3

Define the genus "homo"

- 20% > Australopithecine

- parabolic arcade

The 2 "gracile" astralopithecus species?

- afarensis

- africanus

Astralopithecus afarensis: nickname, height, dental arcade, cranial capacity

Lucy ; 3 1/2 MYA & ft tall ; V dental arcade ; 404cm3

Australopithecus species?

1. garhi

2. aethiopicus

3. boisei

4. robustus

Who probably made Oldowan tools?

Homo habilus

Homo habilus nickname?

Handy man b/c of precision grip

Homo erectus = cranial capacity & 4 facts

1. 900cm3

2. 1st hunter/gatherer

3. 1st to leave Africa

4. 1st well developed tool user

5. FIRE!

Who is credited with Mousterian tools?


Ritual burial site for Neanderthals?

Shanadar Cave

Homo floresiensis nickname?


Homo sapiens sapiens--3 main facts

1. Appear 200,000 YA

2. At same time, huge cultural explosion and change in anatomy

3. Make a living by hunting and gathering until 10,000 YA

Natural selection selects for dark skin in tropics to....?

protect folate levels(UV drains folate) and prevent hypervitaminosis D

Natural selections selects for light skin away from equator to....?

prevent ricketts (too little Vitamin D)

Hypodescent laws in Native Americans

blood quantum laws (EX Must be 1/2 choctaw to be a member of Band of Choctaw Indians)

Hypodescent laws in Hispanics

they can choose what to label themselves

Hypodescent laws in African Americans

one drop rule - mixed race = African American; even one remote black ancestor makes you black

What are the 3 races in Japan?

1. Ainu (indigenous ppl from Japan)

2. Koreans

3. Burakumin (lower caste from Samuri days)

Race in Brazil?

Fluid, have over 500 different races even though they started with same 3 basic races as US, "money lightens"

___ had to gather more species when foraging due to decrease in big game available, rise in sea level, etc possibly due to climate change

Broad Spectrum Revolution

Neolithic Revolution literally means

new stone age

Due to Broad Spectrum Revolution, people become ________ which caused a ________

sedentary; population increase/population pressure

Where did this all start (BSR)?

Hilly Flank region

Domestication only happened ____ times independently in history; ___ NW, ____OW

7; 3, 4

the domestication of plants and animals is called______________

Neolithic Revolution

What are "Three Sisters" and where were they used?

Corn, beans, squash in MesoAmerica

What was the original "affluent society"?

Bushmen of Kalahari

_____were the first to leave writing ; was called _________

Sumerians ;

Paleo Indians are famous for ?

Clovis point (on end of spear)

Which groups had bilateral kinship?

Bands & States

Which groups had unilateral kinship?

Tribes & Chiefdom

What made horticulture successful?

Fallow periods -- resting of sections of soil while using others to let it replenish; also used slash and burn to put stuff back into soil

What made pastorilism successful?

symbiosis -- the cow and person are 1 basically...continually looking after one another and using all of an animal.

Which groups had more than reciprocity?

Chiefdoms (redistribution) and State (Redistribution and markets)

Whats key to success of bands?