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95 Cards in this Set

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Franz Boas

"Father of Anthro"


Created 4 subfields:


Archaeology, Cultural Ant, Biological Ant, Linguistics, Applied Ant

Ethnology

Interprets work of ethnography

Rapport

Personal connection

Archaeological Field Methods

Artifacts: object used by humans


Feature: non-movable object (wall)


Site: Place containing remains of human activities (artifacts/features)


Excavation: Determine exact horizontal and vertical location of artifact

Effects of field work

Wealth, Jealousy, Envy


Recognition, esteem

IRB

Institutional Review Board


prevents unethical research (Nazis)

Female Circumcision

Cultural: Circumcision marks adulthood. Full memebr of society. Fertility


Ethnocentric: Mutilations and denies sexuality. Human rights denied

Primitive Culture

Tylor


Culture is learned/acquired- not biological

Integration

If one persons culture changes, they all do

Diffusion

Borrowing traits between cultures

Acculturation

Prolonged direct contact results


Fusion: American melting pot ideology


Extinction: Yanamamo dying at a rate of 10% a year

John Locke

"An Empty Cabinet"


New born human is blank slate

Enculturation

Acquiring a particular Culture


Child learns culture

Self-Awarness

ABility to identify oneself as an object/react to self

Rites of Passage

Socialization happens during biological and social changes


Movement of importance in the world


Seperation, transition/liminality, incorporation

Seperation

Circumcised


Village meeting place


Pain shows adulthood



Transition/Liminality

Put into seclusion for 1 month


Shows they can provide for household


9 months later: Re-born

Incorporation

Presetent themselves at market to show potential to be a spouse

Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

Language is shaping force to guide our way of thinking and behaving

Longitudinal Research

Long lasting research


Jane Goodall


Frank Hamilton Cushing

Lowland Gorrila

Extinct because of warfare and potching

Primate Characteristics

1. Limbs/Locamotion: Sitting, standing; 5 digits


2. Diet/Dentition and senses: Fruits, bugs, meat; Intelligence


3. Behavior: Fetal nourishment and care; Depend on learned behaviors



Chimps/Gorillas

Were pongidae


Now Hominid



Hylobatidae

Gibbons and Slamangs


Monogamous for life

Pongidae

Orangutans


Solitary (b/c loss of habitat)

Hominidea

Gorillas, Chimps,


Knuckle walkers




Bonobos


Female Centered


Human ancestor




Infant development and dependency increased

Kayotype Comparison

SImilar/ Different chormosomes

Hominid Behavior Diet

40-80% forging; Gibbons, orangutans, gorillas= Vegetarians

Hominid Behavior Medication

Leaves


Aspila: Antibacterial and antiviral properties


Swallowed not chewed

Hominid Behavior Territory

Many overlap


Chimps make boreders


GOrillas do not defend

Hominid Behavior Aggresion

CHimps throw rocks


Attack eachother in small groups



Hominid Behavior Social Units

CHimps: 50 members per groups

Hominid Behavior Hierarchy

Sex, Aggression, Intellegence

Hominid Behavior Reproduction

No fixed breeding season


Estrus: Females swell to show mating ready


Men have sex with as many people as possible

Hominid Behavior Language

Vocalization: Warnings, threats, defense and gathering


Kinesics: Analyzing posture, expressions and body motion to convey messages


Arbitrariness: Words/sounds have no connection to objects they represent

Productivity

Ability to create new expressions; humor

Displacement

Ability to speak of things that are not present

Hominids

Humans did not evolve from gorillas; Share and ancestor


Sahelanthrops, Ardipithecus, Australopithecines, Homo

Great Chain Of Being

God made hierarchy; Europeans were created first and evolved longer


Caused slavery

Piltdown Hoax

Homosapean skull wasn't real; cranial fragments and jaw from same deposite

Relative Dating

Assigning event, objective or fossil as being older or younger than another


Prehisoric vs. historic

Chronometric Dating

Assigning dates based on solar years, centuries and other units of time.

Law of Supraposition

Stratigraphic dating


The lowest rock layers have been there the longest and are probably the oldest

Early Chronometric

Radio-carbon


C14 decays @a constant rate or 1/2

Later Chronometric

Potassium Argon


Date volcanic ash and lava


Volcanoes leave only potassium and decays to argon

Taung Child

Raymond Dart


Austrapithecine;


Bipedal and


small brain

Earliest Hominid

Sahelanthropus Tchadensis


Ape size brain; might be bipedal


smaller teeth


Omnivore

Ramidus

Ground ape;


White, Gensuwa, Asfaw


omnivore


apossable big toe

Lucy

Austrapithecine Afarensis


Bipedal; Big toe normal with foot arch

Australopithecus Garhi

2.5 MYA;


Small brain;


omnivore- smaller teeth


Gracileds

Taphonomy

How fossils got there


C.K Brain: Actually prey not predators; fossils found in caves

Australopithecus Habilis

Oldowan


Large brain


omnivore


Gracile


homebody

Oldowan Sites

Stone tools only


Stone tools and bones of 1 animal: "Kill" or "Butchery" site


Tools and bones of many animals: "Living Site"



Lewis Leakey

Hunters



Blumenshine, Binford, Shipman

Scavengers

Australopithecine Summary

Woodland enviro


Vegetarian (Robust)


Omnivore (Gracile)


Scavengers


Stone tools

Oldowan Tool use

Garhi


Habilis


Locally Available



Homo Ergaster

Earliest appearance in East Africa (Turkana)


Thinner cranial bones


Vegetarian


Larger Brain


Family units


Acheulian


tall/lean

Bergmans Rules

Adaptation to tropical environments


Hot tropical environment means they need to be taller and thinner

Acheuliam Tools

Ergaster


Erectus


Long distance materials


Long Lasting


Cutting and scraping

Ergaster Hunting

Broken animal bones scattered indicated hunting

Earliest Fire

Kenya


Burnt tools


Phytoliths: Sand like bits produced by plants found ashes

1st Migration

Asia: Erectus


Eugene Dubois: Though Erectus were earliest people from Asia


1st Ever erectus found

The "Movius Line"

Boundary that separates Acheulian and East Asian Chopping Complex

Asian Chopping Tool Complex

Bamboo used for rope and traps


Chopping tools used to cut bamboo/wood to make other tools


local

Zhoukoudien

China: Erectus found


Medicinal cures- Anderson and Black


Lost bodies during WW2


EARLIEST EVIDENCE OF GATHERING AND FIRE

Erectus Cannibalism

People thought, but faces found with missing parts and eaten brains indicating attacks by hyenas

Multi-Regional Model

Theory that Erectus populations throughout the world evolved independently into anatomically modern humans thru gene flow


-Idea that every species from previous times mated together creating modern humans

Replacement Theory

African Eve


Variation found in AFrican populations indicates most change/oldness


-DNA comes directly from Africa indicating connection to modern Humans

Archaic Homo Sapiens

Larger brains


Brow-ridge


Indications of ability to speak

Bodo

Ethiopia


Defleshing/Scalping= Symbolic

Neanderthals

1st found Neader Valley


Boule= makes them seem dumb


Hunch because of arthritis


Short, stalky, strong= all to keep warm


Mousterian



Mousterian Industry Tools

Neanderthals


Local Materials


points, scrapers, handaxes

Neanderthal Language

Hyoid/Larynx= Ability to speak


Kebra cove

Neanderthal Migration

Hunted a mixed bag of species and depended on locally available fauna rather than following a specific species of animals

Shanidar Cave

Pollen found in grave indicated flowers over burial to show love and care

Neanderthal Injuries

Similar to bull rider = broken ribs/back/collar bone


Shows hunting technique of jumping on prey to attcak

Isotopic Studies

More varied diet by modern humans


Neanderthals

Osteological Syudies

Greater fine tune hand mobility by modern humans


Neanderthals



Late Neanderthals

SPain, UK, and other European nations


Evidence of speech


Caring for ill/dead

Enthography

Field work, describing, interviewing specific community

Hoax

Flourine Test


Human skull


Jaw didnt fit


Different time period

Gibbons and Siamangs

Fruit


Small


Hylobatidae

Orangutans

Pongidae


Fruit


Solitary

Gorillas

Hominidae


Knuckle walkers


groups


vegetarians

Chimps

Knuckle walkers


Hominidae


Large groups

Bonobos

Hominidae


Female center


small

Homindoiea Characterisics

larger


complex brain


infant dependance

Early Australopithecines

Ramidus


Anaensis


Afarensis

Africanus

Small teeth


omnivore

Robust forms

Large cheeks


large teeth


thick enamel


vegetarians

Omnivores

Small teeth


thin enemal

Vegetarians

Big molars


Thick enemal


Big jaw bones

Bipedal before big brain

bipedal before big brain

2nd migration

Homosaoians left africa