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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Charles Linnaeus
Developed binomial nomenclature, a method of classifying plants and animals.

Ex: Homo sapiens.
Gregor Mendel
Augustinian Priest & scientist
Often called the father of genetics for his study of the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants.
Natural Selection
Changes in the frequency of certain traits in populations due to differential reproductive success.
Non random mechanism of evolution
Fixity of Species
The idea that all species on earth had been created by god in exactly the same form in which it is found presently. Life forms couldn't and didn't change.
Forces of Evolution (3)
Genetic Drift
Gene flow
Genetic Drift
Random change in allele frequencies
Small populations
Bottleneck (M&M example)
Gene Flow
Exchange of genes between populations
“Spring Break” example
Non-Random Mating
also: Assortative mating
Pattern of mating in which individuals choose mates preferentially.
Positive: picking a mate that has traits similar to ones own
Negative: picking a mate that has traits disimilar to ones own
Robert Yerkes
• Earliest studies
o (20s 30s)
• Largely descriptive
Samuel Morton
Quaker anatomist
Advocate of polygenism
Franz Boas
Early 20th century
Re-examined race concept
Biology, culture, language, psychology should be understood in terms

No relationship between biological race and cultural achievement
IQ tests
Developed to identify special needs students
Worried it would be used for other purposes
Lewis Terman
Popularized hereditarian view of intelligence
Started the “testing” industry
30 min test administered once
Advocated for sterilization
Job placement based on exams
Army tests:
WWI; wanted to test all recruits
Used to suggest military placement

Test results:
Average white American most intelligent
Immigrants from S Europe, less intelligent than those in N Europe
Black Americans at bottom of scale
Critiques: test measured cultural knowledge
Franz Boas
Early 20th century
Re-examined race concept
Biology, culture, language, psychology should be understood in terms
No relationship between biological race and cultural achievement
Any chromosome not considered as a sex chromosome, or is not involved in sex determinati
Sister Chromatids
Replicate chromosomes
Homologous chromosomes
Maternal and paternal copies of the same chromosome
Gene Pool
Total complement of genes shared b the reproductive members in a population
Founder Effect
• Small population size
• Extreme case of genetic drift
• Sampling error
• New population established by a few individuals
• Founders may represent a non-random sample of original population
Non-Random Mating
• Choice of mates affected by genotype
• In humans, culture has large impact
• Negative assortative mating where individuals mate with those with different genotypes
• Increased heterozygosity
Positive Assortative Mating
• Individuals mate with those who share similar genotypes
• Increased homozygosity
the study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population, esp. by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits (negative eugenics) or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits (positive eugenics).
A group of individuals of the same species that live together
o The potential to interbreed
o Share the same habitat
o Use the same resources
Stabilizing Selection
Maintenance of 2 or more alleles in a population due to a selection advantage for heterozygote
• Sickle cell anemia
Disruptive Selection
Heterozgote is not adaptive and selected against
• Rarest form of natural selection
• Rh blood factor
Directional Selection
Natural selection favors one extreme form of a trait over all others
• Human brain size, larger cranium
• Darwin’s finches
"making something out of nothing"
• Multiple origins or creations for different human groups
• Multiple “Adams”
o All people are degeneration from perfection originating in Eden
o European populations degenerated the least
Multiple alleles for a gene are present
• ABO blood systems, Obesity, Schizophrenia