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21 Cards in this Set

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What are the main divisions of labor that are found in all societies?

- Sex (menhunt, women gather)


- Age

What are the pros and cons of Chiefdom societies which arebased on redistribution of resources?

Chiefdomredistribution: - coordinatelabor


Chiefdom: getresources from others and holds it in controlled location and then he decidesfor how it is given out. (not always equal)


Pro: safe surplus ofstoring


Cons: inequality

What is a Potlatch and which cultures had them? What is itsfunction and how does it benefit both chiefs and commoners?

- Among theNorthwest Coast groups –( complex chiefdoms) From chiefs to slaves.


- Potlatchis a gift giving feast = expensive object/ but also food.


- Chief isthe host and clan – clan elites.


- Generallyother clan’s elite is invited, and expectation that they pay back.


- Its aboutbragging and prestige – bigger better potlatch gain status

How does chief getwealth?

- His clan


- Needs Approval from clan because they canjoin other clans.

Define and give an example of three types of reciprocity.

- Generalized:family/close friends – no set time/value for repayment – not scorekeeping- Balanced:eye for eye value – equal value – set time for repayment


- Negative:exchange where you get the best of the deal – cheating – loan shark

What are cultural leveling mechanisms? Provide an exampleand explain how and why they are used by foraging societies and why it isimportant to the stability of the group.

- Culturalleveling mechanisms: -


EX:Social Norms = rules of how you behave to society ---- undermined achievements (promotesequality and diminish accruement of wealth)


- EX: KUNG:Hunter will be humble “shame the meat” --- arrow exchange

What are the five principle forms of Power?

- Force


- Persuasion


- Authority


- Coercion


- Manipulation

What is the difference between achieved and ascribed status?

Achieve: you gainedstatus in lifetime


Ascribe: inheritedstatus

Described egalitarian, ranked, and stratified society.

- Eqalitarian– basic equality within the group. (age and sex are only differences)


- Rank –Differential access to prestige and authority


- Stratified= unequal access to power subordinate others

Define gender roles, gender stratification, and genderideology.

Gender role =assigned task for different sexes. – Women do this… Men do that….



Gender stratification= inequality = due to gender




Gender ideology =beliefs that legitimized those sexes.

Give an example of a culture with a third gender. What wastheir social role within their culture?

Two spirits – inbetween sexes closer ties supernatural (shamans)




EX: Cheynne/Zuni – Craftsmen – basket weaving.

What are the factors that affect gender roles? Give anexample of each.

Ideology: Subsistence= economics = divisions of labor

What is genderstratification? Why is more often associated with agricultural societies

Genderstratification: Agricultural: Men net producers (prestige)


Horticultural: plantssmall amount – close to home = allows them to produce/ child care (staying morein domestic spheres)




Public DomesticDichotomy:Affianal – not byblood in laws


Consanguine kin :blood kin


Kinship- MaritalResidence

Name and describe the three main types of post maritalresidence

Patrilocal – women golives with male’s familyMatrilocal – manlives with woman’s family. Neolocal– new household

Compare endogamy and exogamy- why could either be beneficialto a culture.

Endogamy = marryingwithin a culture – pro: resources staying within group, retain culturalidentity




Exogamy = marryingoutside = alliances = tap into their resources = need genetic differencesprevent inbreeding.

Describe the terms clan, phratry, and moiety. How are theyrelated? How are they different?

Clan – claim pastcommon ancestor – may or may not know actually be true.


Phratry – Division of2 clans


Moiety – divisionwithin or between clans usually have totems.

What are possible advantages of the "lumping" ofkin as found in both the Omaha and Crow systems of kinship?

Omaha system:




- Ego –father and uncles all go by the term father and vice versa of girls andmothers.


- Pros: intimes of need/death = role can be taken over.

Describe the major types of marriage systems which is mostcommon, which is most rare.

- monogamy


- polygyny - males has lots of wives (most 80% ofcultural allow it)


- polyandry– women multiple husbands

Define the terms bride price, dowry, and bride service. Ofthe three, which is the most common? What is its purpose?

Dowry – femalesfamily gives money to males family. (monogamy) (least common)


Bridewealth – malesfamily gives money to female family (polygyny)


Services –labor/services

Describe and give an example of an Animatism

Animism – everythinghas a soul


Animatism –everything has a supernatural power – mana; Can be manipulated for good or bad.

What are some functions ofreligion?

- Keep social bonds – brings people together- Moral code – affirms world views


- Explain or understand the world.