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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the comparative study of common sense
Characteristics of anthropology
1) evolutionary

2) comparative

3) holistic


observing and documenting peoples way of life
cultural anthropology
the study of human culture
the study of past societies through material culture
linguistic anthropology
the study of the interplay between language, culture, and societies

the idea that organisms that show the best adaptive qualities have the best chance of survival
3 stages of evolutionism
savagery- hunting and gathering

barbarism- herding, pottery, tools

civilization- farming, rise of technology

the belief and practices of a society serve a particular function
structural functionism
the theory that social structure determines peoples thoughts and behaviour
historical particularism
A school of anthropology developed by Franz Boaz

Every society is the outgrowth of its own unique historical experience

interpretive (symbolic) anthropology
culture as a system of symbols

multiple layers of meaning

produce a scientific rational account for the world-- not including biases
what makes anthropology distinct from other social sciences.

tha tact of physically going out into the field and gathering information

the opinion that your own was of life is natural or correct
cultural relativism
the view that no culture is superior
culture shock
physical and mental symptoms when one realizes that their common sense of the world no longer works.
emic perspective
"IN" the locals view of why they do what they do
etic perspective
"OUT" the outsiders perspective and interpretation of the society
reflect of our own biases
biological/ physical anthropology
the study of human origins and biological diversity
applied anthropology
the application of techniques and theories of anthropology to sole real world problems

values, beliefs shape a society
characteristics of culture
1) learned

2) shared

3) intergrated

4) adaptive

5) symbolic

6) organizes the way people think about the world

a set of expectations and attitudes that people have about appropriate behaviour
adjusts to the influence of another culture while maintaining your own culture
completely taking on a new culture without keeping your own
something that stands for something else
judgment sample
most likely to give you a representative sample of the society
key informants
a person to guide you to get the best information
participant observation
taking an active role in daily life
Margaret Mead and her research
rejected the idea that individual personalitiesare produced by something natural or innate.
crack dealers in Spanish Harlem
young men would rather sell drugs than work low wage jobs
F. Boas
developed historical relativism
B. Malinowski
founded functionalism
a system of sounds that when put together according to certain rules conveys meaning to its speakers
talking about things that are not visible
duality of patterning
two different registers: sound and meaning
words can be combined in an infinite number of sentences
call systems
animal communication that consists of a small number of sounds to express moods and sensations
the study of sounds in human language
the study of articulations of human sounds
analysis of the use of sounds to differentiate the meaning
the study of how words are put together
the study if sentence structure
the study of meaning
nonverbal communication
Emblems: actions that substitute for spoken word

Body language: meanings that people communicate through the body

study of the impacts of socioeconomic and cultural factors
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
words and grammatical structures shape our reality
a slight difference in the same language based on regional differences
changing from one dialect to another or changing between languages within one conversation
lingua franca/pidgin
a simplified language between two or more groups that do not have a language in common
when pidgin is spoken as a primary language
politically correct language in NA
more inclusive language and more positive connotation
the process (formal or informal) by which children acquire the culture of their society
the social aspects of learning ones culture
social birth
a social recognition of the transition to personhood
initiation rites
rituals that mark a persons transition from childhood to adulthood
behavioural traits and dispositions
behaviour that violates cultural norms and expectations
economic system
set of methods to allocate resources and the production distribution consumption of goods and services
means of production
the tools, skills, knowledge, technology that go into the production of goods

AKA capital goods

generalized reciprocity
when there is no specific time or value to be reciprocated
balanced reciprocity
return of equal value is expected
negative reciprocity
parties of the exchange hope to get something for nothing
an exchange of one type of product for another type of product
food and other goods collected by an organizer, and redistribute to community members