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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Endocrine System

Made up of a group of ductless glands that secrete hormones


Ducts --> mouth (EX: Salivary Glands), stomach


Chemical Substances that're produced by ductless glands, released into the blood stream, and carried to other parts of the body where they produced a specific regulatory effect

Routes of hormones

paracrine, autocrine, neurocrine, epicrine

Paracrine route

hormones secreted into space in between cells and the interstitial fluid carries theme to the target organ (hormones often effect neighboring cells)


hormone produced by the cell regulates the activity of cell that produced it


Hormones diffuse through synaptic cleft sim. to neurotransmitters, hypothalamus --> releasing hormones --> infundibulum --> pituitary gland

Epicrine Route

Hormone passes through gap junctions (btwn) cells and alters the function of adj. cells

Types of hormones

Peptide, Amines, Steroids

Peptide Hormones

Protein, stored in secretory granules by endocrine cells, receptors found in cell membrane- response is rapid and quickly reversed, 2ndary messengers- (adapter proteins --> enzymes (kinases)--> cellular effect) cellular components that bring about desired effects of hormone AFTER binding of hormone receptors


Mod. of tyrosine (T3 and T4), stored in secretory granules by endocrine cells


Cholesterol, must be synthesized (not stored), receptors found in cytoplasm/nucleus- responses develop slowly but last longer, hormone binding-triggers transcription of DNA which leads to mRNA for specific proteins to be produced-->Increase in protein production brings about desired effect of hormone, Star Codon


Formation of RBCs

Blood % in body

20% in lungs, 25% in kidney @ a current time

signal tranduction

cell- cell messenging

Atypical hormones

not secreted by endocrine glands, gastrin, secretin, erythropoietin


Wall of stomach, stimulates release of gastric juices from gastric glands for digestion to begin


Wall of SI, stimulate secretion of intestinal/pancreatic juice to continue duodenum (last spit where we can digest) digestion


kidney, stimulates bone marrow

Hormone Receptors

Target organ, Receptors, up and down regulation (can either be lying in wait in cytoplasm in vesicles or by synthesized in the nucleus)

Target Organ

that tissue which is able to respond to a hormone, contains receptors specific to that hormone


complex of protein structures designed to bind a hormone to elicit its cellular effects, usually found in the cell membrane or nucleus


Increased in HR

Down Regulation

Employment of enzymes to chop up HRs

Trigger of upregulation or downregulation

availability/unavailability of hormones

Endocrine Organs/glands

some organs may function to produce hormones, hypothalamus/pituitary gland/thyroid/parathyroid/and adrenal gland


"big boss", hormones: CRH, GnRH, TRH, GHRH, synthesizes oxytocin and Antidiuretic hormone- stored and released by neurohypophysis, stimulates release of various hormones from adenohypophysis (ant. pituitary)


Thins cervix, caused by contractions, also causes milk, involved w/smooth muscle contractions- uterus, myoepithelial cells in mammary glands

Anti-diuretic Hormone

Against diuresis, involved w/kidney function: H2O retention


released from hypothalamus --> ant. pituitary and releases ACTH --> adrenals and release corticosteroids from cortex of adrenals


Stimulates FSH, LH release (adenohypophysis)


Stimulates GH release (adenohypophysis)--> promotes growth in immature animals; metabolic effects on CHO, lipid, protein metabolism in adults


Stimulates TSH release (adenohypophysis) --> Stimulates release of thyroid hormones (follicular cells of thyroid gland)

Pituitary Gland

Contains hormones that gen. affect the function of many organs in a variety of systems, two histologically distinct tissues (adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis)

Ant. Lobe

Adenohypophysis, epithelial tissue, ACTH/FSH/LS/GH/TSH/PRL

Post. Lobe

neurohypophysis- neural tissue, oxytocin and ADH


adrenocorticotropic hormone, stimulates release of hormones from the adrenal gland- most organs have receptors for corticosteroids, corticosteroids (from adrenal cortex) are gen. ass. w/stress responses and the flight or fight syndrome


involved w/regulation of male and female reproductive process (have receptors)

FSH-release of ova --> fallopean tubes, leaves cumulus of cells --> corpus luteum (sustained for a bit bc of LH)


Growth Hormones, most organs, tissues, and cells in the body can respond to GH, stimulates changes in target organs that support growth, mitosis, increased mobilization of nutrients, etc, either by hypertrophy or hyperplasia

Thyroid Gland

secretes: thyroid hormones and calcitonin, hypothyroidism- deficit on thyroid hormone, animals don't attain normal stature and have CNS abnormality, Chronic cold- some animals will increase T3 and T4 production to raise metabolic rate and heat the body, Hyperthyroidism- glands swell to produce more hormone

Thyroid Hormone

tyrosine based, contains I, T4 (thyroxine)- source of T3, more T4> T3, 20:1, T3 (triidothryonine)- increase BMR, almost all tissue have receptors


Peptide hormone, which helps control Ca++ (acts to decrease blood Ca by inhibiting osteoclasts)

Parathyroid Gland

Most dom. animals have two pairs ass. w/the thyroid, secretes PTH (diets low in Ca will stimulate release), increase blood Ca and decrease blood P, stimulates release of Ca and P from bone- increase osteocytes and osteoclast, promotes for of Vit. D in kidneys


increase Ca is removed from bone, leads to bone deformities and osteoporosis and rickets in young animals

Adrenal Glands

Adrenal cortex, and Adrenal medulla

Adrenal Cortex

Glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids


"cortisol and derivatives" typically enhance the production (or conversion) of glucose


"Aldosterone" regulates Na+ and K+ lvls in the blood

Adrenal Medulla



"epinephrine and norepinephrine" have a variety of functions in diff. organs, but mostly prepares animals to "fight or flight"


Pancreatic islets- insulin, glucagon, somatostatin




Alpha-cells, stored in liver


slows mobilization and production of nutrients, insulin decreases blood glucose (glycogenesis), and glucagon increase blood glucose (glycogenolysis)

Pineal Gland

located dorsocaudally in diencephalon, cells (neuronal by lineage) are secretory, supported by neuroglia and receive axon input- pinealocytes, manufacture an enzyme that converts serotonin -->melatonin-hormone, regulates sleep-wake cycle- peaks during darkness

Negative Feedback Regulation

increase lvls of a hormone cause a biologic response to inhibit further release

Positive Feedback Regulation

seen less freq., hormones causes a biologic response that produces an increase in the release of hormone