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61 Cards in this Set

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How can you prevent Toxoplasmosis?

Keep cats indoors, prevent them from hunting, don't feed them raw meat, wash hands thoroughly before and after handling raw meat, store and cook meat properly, pregnant women should aboid cleaning litterboxes, wear gloves when gardening, wash garden veggies.
Why should pregnant women be careful when cleaning litter boxes?
Because the tachyzoites can migrate transplacentally and cause birth defects.
What can humans get if they come in contact with Toxoplasmosis?
tissue cysts in the brain, these cause meningoencephalitis.
What drug is used to treat Toxoplasmosis?
Clindamycin for 3 weeks
Is there a test available for diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis?
Yes, ELISA testing is available.
Give 2 common sites of infections for Toxoplasmosis. (2 for cats and 2 for dogs)
cats: eyes and lungs dogs: GI, neuro, respiratory
When is toxoplasmosis worst? (which animals)
Young, old, immunocompromised animals
Give at least 6 clinical signs of Toxoplasmosis:
Anorexia, lethargy, fever, wt. loss, diarrhea, vomiting, icterus/jaundice, respiratory, lameness, pancreatic dz, anterior uveitis, glaucoma, CNS dz.
What are the 3 routes of transmission for Toxoplasmosis?
Eating contaminated meat, fecal-oral, tranplacental.
What is toxoplasma gondii?
An intracellular protozoal parasite.
What animal is the only definitive host for Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)?
The cat.
A vaccinated cat may test positive later on for FIV, why would this be?
The test checks the blood for antibodies. If the cat has been vaccinated, it will have antibodies built up. It may show up as a false positive.
How can FIV be prevented?
Keep all cats indoors, keep infected cats isolated and stress free.
Is FIV zoonotic?
What would you use to alleviate the symptoms of FIV?
Immunomodulators, antiviral therapy, treatment of secondary infections.
Is there a cure for FIV? How is it treated?
No. Must aim treatment at alleviation of the symptoms.
What are some of the clinical signs of FIV?
Hx of recurrent illness, cachexia/anorexia, gingivitis/stomatitis, chronic ear/skin infections, chronic URI, vomiting/diarrhea, neurologic, ocular dz(uveitis), chronic fever, chronic renal insufficiency.
How do you determine if an animal has FIV?
Clinical signs, History (any recurrent illness?), Snap test
What is FIV short for?
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus
How can you prevent Feline Leukemia?
FeLV+ cats should be kept indoors, isolated from others, neutered, vaccinated for other core diseases, be kept from stress.
In order to prevent Feline Leukemia, testing should be mandatory for which animals?
ALL kittens, new cats being introduced to household, all cats prior to first FeLV caccination, any ill cat.
Name an immunomodulator drug that can be used to alleviate symptoms of FeLV.
Acemannan, ImmunoRegulin, Human alpha-interferon.
How should you treat cats with a diagnosis of FeLV?
Confirm the diagnosis, there is no cure but you can use drug therapies(alleviates symptoms), antiviral drugs, Broad spectrum antibiotics, blood transfusion(anemia), chemotherapy(lymphoma)
What is one way to diagnose FeLV?
FeLV ELISA Snap test
Give 4 clinical signs of Feline Leukemia:
fever, anorexia, vomiting/diarrhea, neurologic signs, secondary infections, infertility/abortion, renal disease, lymphoma/tumors.
What are the 2 crazy words that Jen likes?
Quasineoplastic and ostochondromatosis
What are some disorders that are related to FelV?
Immunosuppression, neoplasia, anemia, immune-mediated diseases, reproductive problems, enteritis.
The acute stage of Feline Leukemia usually occurs how long after infection?
2-6 weeks
What is the most likely route of transmission for Feline Leukemia?
Oronasal route (in close contact, non-aggressive cats), bite wounds(outdoor cats), transmammary and transplacental routes(pregnant cats)
What does FelV stand for?
Feline Leukemia Virus
Give 2 ways that you can prevent FIP.
Be careful in multi-cat households, remove any cats that test positive (6 weeks), isolate pregnant queens (2 weeks before giving birth), wean and remove kittens by 5 weeks, don't breed siblings and parents of FIP+ cats, decontaminate litterboxes and contact surfaces.
What treatment would you give for FIP? (Name at least 2 things)
Aspirate fluid (ease resp distress), steroids/chemotherapy agents (control inflammatory process), broad spectrum antibiotics(prevents secondary infections), Immunotherapy (no specific agent has been shown to be effective though)
How would you diagnose FIP?
Clinical signs, signalment, high FCoV antibody titers (suggestive but not diagnostic)
Give 3 clinical signs of the Dry form of FIP.
FUO, Anorexia, depression, weight loss, ocular lesions, neurologic signs, enlarged kidneys.
Give 3 clinical signs of the wet form of FIP:
Ascites, Pleural effusion, anorexia, depression, weight loss, dehydration, +/- fever.
What are the 2 forms of Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP)?
Wet or Effusive(75%), Dry or Granulomatous(25%)
How is FIP passed from one cat to another? It is highly/not highly contagious.
Feces, urine, saliva. highly contagious
FIP is short for what?
Feline Infectious Peritonitis
How can you help prevent Feline Panleukopenia?
Vaccinations, environmental decontamination (bleach, roccal, peroxide, etc.)
If a cat survives Feline Panleukopenia, will they ever get it again?
If they survive, they will have lifelong immunity.
When giving supportive care during treatment of Feline Panleukopenia, what are 3 things that you can do?
Broad spectrum antibiotics (treats secondary infections), IV fluids (corrects dehydration and electrolyte imbalances), manage hypoglycemia and hypoproteinemia, mantain body temp (control fever), Nutrition/calories (force feeding, hand feeding, etc.)
How is Feline Panleukopenia treated?
Supportive care, management of secondary infections
How can a diagnosis be made for feline panleukopenia?
History (adequately vaccinated), CBC (marked depletion of all WBC lines), Parvovirus Snap fecal antigen test, PCR Virus Isolation, Serum antibody titers.
What is cerebellar hypoplasia (CH)?
Head bobbing caused by transplacental exposure to kittens from mothers infected with feline panleukopenia. (The kittens who survive).
Give 3 signs of Feline Panleukopenia.
Fever, depression, vomiting, fetid (stinky) diarrhea, dehydration, anorexia, cerebellar and retinal defects, fetal death/spontaneous abortion.
Feline panleukopenia has a high/low mortality rate.
What is the incubation period for Feline Panleukopenia?
4-5 days
T or F Feline distemper is not infectious, and only remains stable for a short time.
False (highly infectious, remains stable for years)
How is feline distmper spread?
Direct contact, environmental contamination, fomites.
What is the route of infection for feline distemper?
Feline distemper affects what type of animals?
Young, unvaccinated, and feral animals (also purebred kittens exposed to high antigen loads)
Feline distemper is caused by what?
Feline parvovirus
Give 3 examples of pansystemis diseases in dogs:
Distemper virus (CDV), Parvovirus (CDV), Lyme disease, rickettial diseases(RMSF, Erlichiosis, Anaplasmosis)
Name 3 examples of pansystemic diseases in felines.
Panleukopenia (FPV), Infectious Pertonitis (FIP), Leukemia virus (FelV), Immunodeficiency virus (FIV), Toxoplasmosis.
A disease that affects multiple systms and organs of the body is called ______.
a pansystemic disease
Name the 3 types of lymphocytes involved in acquired immunity, and where they are made:
B cells (bone marrow) effector T cells (thymus) regulatory, helper and cytotoxic T cells (thymus)
Give one way that acquired immunity is important:
1. fast 2. proportionate to degree of threat 3. improves with experience
Give 2 ways cytokines influence behavioral responses in the brain.
1. cause thermoregulatory centers to increase body temp. (fever) 2. decrease energy output by depressing appetite 3.mobilize energy reserves from fat and muscle
1. These cells phagocytize foreign microbes and kill them through an "oxidative burst". 2. These cells release enzymes that kill parasites (helminths) 3. These are slower than neutrophils but kill what they can't. They also clean up cellular debris. 4. These include NK (Natural Killer) cells, that kill virus infected cells. a.Macrophages b.eosinophils c.lymphocytes d.neutrophils
d.neutrophils, b.eosinophils, a.macrophages, c.lymphocytes
cells found throughout the body that induce a rapid inflammatory response to outside invaders and play a large role in allergic responses are______. a. mast cells b. dendritic cells c. macrophages
a. mast cells
Immune cells whose main function is to process antigen material and present it on the surface to other cells of the the immune system are_______. a. macrophages b. mast cells c. dendritic cells
c. dendritic cells