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220 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the name of the canal from the mouth to anus
alimentary canal
what are the four histological layers of the alimentary canal
serosa or adventicia
muscularis externa
submucosa
mucosa
the outermost layer of the GI tract, a binding and protective layer.
adventicia
what kind of epithelium is in the serosa or adventicia tunica of the GI tract
simple squamous epithelium aka visceral peritoneum
layer of the GI tract that is responsible for segmental contractions - peristalsis- throughout the GI tract. contrctions physically churn the food as it is mixed with digestive chemicals enzymes
muscularis externa
plexus of the muscularis externa located between the two muscle layers and consists of parasymp ganglia and symp postganglionic fibers
mysenteric or auerbachs of the muscularis externa
most external and runs parallel to the lumen
muscularis externa
inner layer of the muscularis externa and encircles the lumen
circular layers
layer of loose CT with large blodo vessel snad lympathics deep to the muscularis externa
submucosa
exocrine glands that secrete buffers and enzymers are located in this layer of the GI tract
submucosa
this innervates the mucosa with sensory parasymp ganglia and symp postganglionic fibers in the submucosa layers
plexus opf meissner or submucosal plexus
rename the submucosal plexus
plexus of meissner
what kinds of innervation are associated with the plexus of meissner submucosla plexus
parasymp gnagilia for sensory and symp postganglionic fibers
the narrow outer protio of the mucosa layer of the GI tract that has inner circular and outer longtiudinal layer with elastic fibers
muscularis mucosa
this contracts and alters the shape of the lumen and mores the peithelial folds
muscularis mucosa of the mucosa layer of the GI tract
underlying layer of loose CT contains blood vessels and sensory nerves lympathics smooth muscles fibers and scattered areas of lymphoid tissue part of the GALT system
lamina propria of the mucosa
what kind of epithelium are found in the mucosa
loose CT covered with epithelium moistened by glandular secretions
the stomach small intestinese and most of the colon are lined by
simple columnar epithelium for secretion and absorption
what is simple columnar epithelium good for
secretion and abosrption
the mucosa is pleated or folded which may be permanent or temporary as a means to increase the surface area of the mucosa layer... this is called
plica
depression between the cheeks and the lips externall and the gumsa nd teeth internally
vestibule
opening of the oral cavity
oral orafice
opening of the oral cavity into the pharynx
fauces
the lips are attached at the midline fold by the ...
labial frenulum
reddish color of transition zone between skinand mucous membranes
vermillion
located on the mucous membrane of the hard palate
transverse palatine folds or palatal rugae
what lies anteriorly in the mouth
palatoglossal
glossalpalatine arch
what lies posteriorly in the mouth
palatopharyngeal or
pharyngeaopalatine arch
where is the palatine tonsil
between the palatoglossal and the palatopharyngeal
rename palatopharyngeal
pharyngeopalatine arch
rename glossalpalatine arch
palatoglossal
how teeth in kids adults
20
32
how many incisors in kids adults
2
2
hoe homany premolars in kids adults
0 2 bicupsids
how many molars in kids adults
2
3 last is wesdom
anterior 2/3 or this muscles is in the oral cavity and the posterior 1/3 is in the pharynx
tongue
muscles that originate elsewhere and insert on the tongue, more the tongue in and out and side to side
extrinsic muslces
assist extrinsic muscles of the tongue
intrinsic muscles
oriniates in the edial surface of the nadible
gnioglossus
inserts in body of the the tongue, hyoid
genioglossus
depresses and retracts the tongue
genioglossus
innervated with hypoglossal in tongue
genioglossus
hypoglossus
styloglossus
originates in the hyoid
hypoglossus
inserts in the side of the tongue
hypoglossus
palatoglossus
depresses and retracts the tongue
hypoglossus
origin is the anterior surface of the soft palat
palatoglossus
elevates he tongue and depresses the soft palate
palatoglossus
depresses tongue
genioglossus and hypoglossus
retracts the tongue
hypoglossus
styologlossus
elevates the tongue
styloglossus and palatoglossus
innervated by the accessory nerve in the tongue
palatoglossus
what are the largest glands that are located below and in front o the auricle and drain through the parotid duct
parotid glands
parallels the zygomatic arch across the masseter pierces the buccinator muscle and gies out watery serous fluid
parotid glands
these salivary glands lie inferior ot hte body of the mandilbe midway along the inner side of the jaw and secrete watery serous fluid with SOME mucus
submandibular glands
sies under the mucous membrane of the floor of the mouth and secretes mostly thick stringy mucus
sublingual glands
in esophagus what is the epithelium of the mucosa
stratified squamous
except during swalling is the lumen open or closed by muscles tone
closed
does the muscle layer of the muscularis mucosa get thinner or thicker as it approaches the stomach
thickens
**
the muscularis externa of the esophagus has inner circular and outer longitudeinal layers... superior 1/3 is skeletal then mixed then smooth
how is the adventicia of the esophagus different?
no serosa, is outer fibrous layer, layer of CT outside the muscularis externa anchors the esophagus against the dorsla body wall
what anchos the esophagus against the dorsal body wall
adventicia
what stage of swallowing is whne the bolus passes through the pharynx
stage two is involuntary
what stage or swallowing is entry and passage of food through the esophagus involuntary
3rd stage
what are the sphincters of the esophagus
superior esophageal or pharygoesophageal
inferior esophageal or cardiac sphincter
rename superior esophageal sphincter
pharyngoesophageal
rename inferior esophageal sphincter
cardiac sphincter
innervated by inferior thyroid bronchail arteries esophageal phrenic and left gastric arteris
esophagus
Inferior Thyroid
Bronchial Arteries
Esophageal
Phrenic
Left gastric arteries
parasymp preganglionic fibers reach the esophagus by way of this nerve and synapses with galnglion cells in he esophagus
vagus
preganglionic fibers arise in the lower part of the thoracic spinal cord and synpase in ganglia in the symp trunks and enter the esophageal plexus by visceral branches of the trunks and the blank nerve
greater splanchnic nerve
the mucosa is thrown into prominent longitudinal folds which permit expansion of the tomach
rugae
how many L of gastric juice each day
1.5L
abundant near the base of the gastric glands and secrete pepsinogen the gastric acid converts it into pepsin a proteolytic enzyme
zymogenic or cheif cells
are common along the proximal portions of the gastric glands and secrete HCl and intrinsic factor which faciliates absorption of B12 across the intersintal border
parietal cells
are scattered among the cheif and parietal cells and produce at least seven secretions.
enteroendocrine cells
enteroenocrine cells that produce gastrin and stimulate the other cells
enteroendocrine cells of the mucosa of the stomach
what produces mucus in the stomach
mucous cells or goblet cells
in the stomach the muscularis externa contains an extra inner layer of blank muscle
oblique smooth which strneghtens the stomach wall and assists in mixing and churning of chyme
what are the 6 regions of the stomach
cardiac
fundus
body
pylorus
superior margin in lesser curvature
inferior margin the greater curvature
what part of the stomach is in direct contact with the diaphragm
fundus
what is the "mixing tank" of the stomach
the body of the stomach
what supplies the lesser curvature
l gastric artery a branch of the celiac trunk
what supplies the fundus and greater curvature through th eL gastroepiploic artery
splenic artery a branch of the celiac trunk
what supplies the lesser and greater curvatures of the pylorus thorugh the right gastroepiloic artery and gatsroduodenal artery
common hepatic artery
**
POSTganglionic parasymp fibers innervate parietal cells chief cells and mucous cells of the stomach
what innervates the parietal cells, chief cells, and mucous cells of the stomach
postganglionic parasymp
sympathetic innervation of the stomach is from the blank plexus
celiac plexus and inhibits gastric activity
how long is the small intestine in life
8-13 ft
what is the surface area of the small intestine
2200 square feet
occurs at 15 contractions/minute forcing chyne through the SI in 3-10 hours
peristalsis
800 deep permanent circular folds o the mucosa and submucosa that force chyme to spiral through the lumen and slows he course of cyme and allows for nutrient absorption
plicae circularis of the mucosa of the small intestine
fingerlike projections of th mucosa over 1 mm high giving velvety texter
villi
these are larger in the duodenum and gradually become enarrower and shorter along the length of the small intestine
villi
in the core of each villus, which accompanies with dense cpaillary bead
lacteals
transport materials that cannot enter the capillaries such as lipds and lipoprotein complexes. also absorb monosaccharides and amino acids
lacteals
between the villi, pits that extend into the lamina propria the intestinal glands or crypts of lieberkuhn
tubular glands
these gland secrete intestinal juice and contain an arrayy of enzyms and mucus
tubular blands
mucus secreting glands found only in the submucosa of the duodenum ONLY produce bicar rich mucus that neutralizes the cidic chyme
brunner's glands are tuboalveolar glands
simple columnar absorptive cells, bound by tight junctions, and richly endowwed with microvilli and carry many enzymes: the brush border enzymes
columnar cells
mucus secreting cells that become more abundant through te length of the small intestine
mucous goblet cells
located deep in the crypts they release antibacterial enzyme lsozyme
paneth cells
scattered cells that are the source of enterogastrones insteinal horman\es: secretin and choecysotkinin
enteroendocrine cells
what cells release lysozymes
paneth cells
what cells relase the intestinal hormones secretin and cholestokinin
enteroendocrine cells
in the duodenum secretions from the common bile duct and pancreatic duct unite to form the
ampulla of vater or hepatopancreatic duct and eter the duodenum and duodenal pailla which can be opened or closed by a sphincter
rename ampulla of vater
hepatopancreatic duct
fingerlike projections of th mucosa over 1 mm high giving velvety texter
villi
these are larger in the duodenum and gradually become enarrower and shorter along the length of the small intestine
villi
in the core of each villus, which accompanies with dense cpaillary bead
lacteals
transport materials that cannot enter the capillaries such as lipds and lipoprotein complexes. also absorb monosaccharides and amino acids
lacteals
between the villi, pits that extend into the lamina propria the intestinal glands or crypts of lieberkuhn
tubular glands
these gland secrete intestinal juice and contain an arrayy of enzyms and mucus
tubular blands
mucus secreting glands found only in the submucosa of the duodenum ONLY produce bicar rich mucus that neutralizes the cidic chyme
brunner's glands are tuboalveolar glands
simple columnar absorptive cells, bound by tight junctions, and richly endowwed with microvilli and carry many enzymes: the brush border enzymes
columnar cells
mucus secreting cells that become more abundant through te length of the small intestine
mucous goblet cells
located deep in the crypts they release antibacterial enzyme lsozyme
paneth cells
scattered cells that are the source of enterogastrones insteinal horman\es: secretin and choecysotkinin
enteroendocrine cells
what cells release lysozymes
paneth cells
what cells relase the intestinal hormones secretin and cholestokinin
enteroendocrine cells
in the duodenum secretions from the common bile duct and pancreatic duct unite to form the
ampulla of vater or hepatopancreatic duct and eter the duodenum and duodenal pailla which can be opened or closed by a sphincter
rename ampulla of vater
hepatopancreatic duct
the ileum empties into the coloon through the
ileocecal valve
what are the abundant lymphoid nodules in the ileum called
peyer's patches
which sections of the small intestine has mesentary which allows movment but prevents kinking
jejunum and ileum
what supplies the small intestine with blood
superior mesenteric artery
what supplies the proximal duodenum with blood
gastroduodenal artery a branch of the common hepatic artery
the innervation of the parasym small intestine is from vagus nerve relayed mainly through the superior...
superi0or mesenteric plexus
in the small intestine sympathetic innervation is from the superior...
mesenteric plexus some celiac plexus
converts starch and glyocgen into disaccharides
salivary amylase
begins the digestion of proteins
pepsin in the stomach source is chief cells
source is chief cells in the stomach gastric juice enzyme
pepsin
intestinal juice enzymes LPMSLANE
Lipase
peptidase
maltase
sucrase
amylase
nuclease
enterokinase

all from intestinal gland
converts proteins to amino acids
peptidase in small intestine
converts disacchardis into monosaccharides
sucrase maltase lactase
converts triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol
lipase
converts starch adn glycogen into disaccharides
amylase
converts nucleic acids into nucleotides
nuclease
activates trypsin
enterokinase
pancreatic juice enzymes in the small intestine CTCPLAN
chymotrypsin
trypsin
carbosypeptidase
peptidase
lipase
amylase
nuclease
converst protiens or partially digested proteins into amino acids
peptidase
trypsin
chymotrysin
carboxypeptidase
wall of the colon forms a series of pouches known as
austra
allows distnesion and elongation in the large intestine
haustra
the serosa of the colon continas numbeerous tear drop shaped sacs of fat known as the
epiploic appendages
absorbs vitamins liberated b bacterial action
large intestine
doe sthe large intestine have villi?
no no more absoprtion
does the large intestine have goblet cells
yes much more prevalent-- no scratching
the muscularis externa is the longtiudinal layer of the large intestine and reduced to three separate longitudinal ribbons
taeniae coli
what are the three types of movement in the large intestine
haustral churning
peristalsis
mass movement
when the colon bends sharply to the left
hepatic flexure
the colon bends sharply inferiorly
spenic flexure
at the iliac fossa the sdescneding colon proceeds in s shaped segment posterior to the urinary bladder
sigmoid colon
what supplies the cecum appendix and ascending and proximal 2/3 of the transverse colon
superior mesenteric artery
supplies the distal 1/3 of the transverse colon adn the descneding and sigmoid colon and the rectum
inferior mesenteric arty
the second half of the colon is innervated in parasymp from the
pelvic splanchnic nurve
the second half of the colon is symp innervated by the
inferior mesenteric plexus.. the first half is by the superior mesentericc plexus
a compound tubuloacinar gland
pancreas
prodeuce insulin which loers serum glucose
beta cells
produce gucoagon which reaises serum glucose
alpha cells
rename pancreatic islets
eslets of langerhan
exocrine secrtions the pancreatic juice empties form the pancreatic duct into the
duodenum
what are the three reegions of the pancreas
head
body
tail
each acinus is lined by simple cuboidal epithelium that secretes water ions and enzymes
central lumen of acini
union of the R and L hepatic ducts carrying bile from the liver.
common bile duct
where dose the cystic duct lead to from the pancreas
gallbladder
mat branch from the main pancreatic duct before it leaves the pancreas, and ener the duodenum through a separate ampulla the lesser duodenal ampulla
accessory pancreatic duct
the splenic arty artery an common hepatic artery make up the
celiac trunk that supplies the pancreas
the common hepatic artery in the pancreas donates the
gastroduodenal and superior pancreaticoduodenal arteries
the splenic artery of the pancraes donaes numerous small arteries known as
pancreatics
innervated by the branch of the celiac plexus
pancreas
he glandular protion of the pancreas receives parasymp or symp innervation
parasymp
the pancretaic blood vessels reeive symp or parasymp innervsation
symp
this organ is wrapped in tough fibrous casule and covered by visceral peritoneum
liver
separates the liver into right ad left lobes
falciform ligament becomes round ligament or legamentum teres
remnant of the umbilical cord
ligamentum teres or round ligament a fibrous band
other two lobes of the liver
caudate and quadrate
form irregular plates that are one cell lyaer thik and are arranged like awagon wheel around the central vien. sinusoids between the plates empty into the central vein
heapocytes
a typical lobule is hexagonal with six blanks at the corners
portal areas or hepatic triads
contains a branch of the hepatic portal vein, a branch of the hepatic artery, and small branch of the bile duct in each of these
portal areas or hepatic triads of the liver
this is produced by adjacent hepatocytes and flows thorugh a bile canaliculus to the bile duct
bile
consists of bilirubin choesterol and varios lipids knowns as bile salts
bilirubin
buffers he acidic chyme as it enters the duodenum and emulsifies lipis
bile
phagoctyic cells remove old or damaged RBC cellular debris and pathogens
liver
synhthesize plasma proteins that contribute to the osmotic concentration of blood transport nutients and etablish the clotting and complement systems
liver cells
these line the sinusoids and are large number of phagocytic cells in the liver
kupffer cells
rgulates systemic circulating levels of carbs amino acids and lipis
liver
symp innervation in the liver comes from the
thoracolumbar nerves through the celiac ganglia
the sphincter surrounding the common bile duct and pancreatic duct
sphinterfoddi
intraperitoneal organs and mesenteries
LSITS
liver
stomach
ileum
transverse colon
sigmoid colon
retroperitoneal organs no mesenteries
PRADD
pancrease
rectum
ascending colon
descending colon
uodenum
mesentery is falciform ligament and lesser omentum
liver
mesentery is greater and less omentum
stomach
mesentery is mesentery proper
ileum and jejunum
mesentery is transverse mesocolon
transverse colon
mesentery is sigmoid mesocolon
sigmoidcolin
is deeper within the kidney and has darker striped appearance
medullary layer
the medulla is composed of 6-18 conical renal pyramids the base of each pyramid faces the cortex
renal pyramids
the rounded apex of each pyramid projects into the renal sinus
papilla of the medullary layer
what are the a-g layers of the medullary layer
renal pyramids
papilla
minor calyx
major calyx
renal pelvis
renal columns
renal lobe
ducts within each renal papilla disharge urine into a cup shaped drain
minor calyx
foud or five minor clyces merge to form a major calyx
major calyx
union of the 4-6 calyces
renal pelvis
adjacent renal pyramids are separated by bands of cortical tissue
renal columns
consists or a renal pyramid the overlying area of the cortex and adjacent renal columns
renal lobe
originates along the lateal surface of the abdominal aorta just inferior tot the superor mesenteric artery each kidney usually recieves about 1200 ml of blood
renal artery
the renal artery divides within the renal sinus into segmental arteries that supply several lobes
segmental artery (lobar arteries_
rename segmental arteries
lobar arteries
segmental artieres further divide into interlobar arteries taht radiate peripherlaly penetrating the renal capsule and extending though the reanl columns and between the renal pyramnids
interlobar arteries
supplied by the interlobar arteries the arcuate arteries parallel the boundary beween the cortex and medulla gibinh rise to the interlobular arters
arcuate arteries
supplie portions of the adjacent renal lobe
interlobular arteries
will transport blood to ball shaped capillary metworks wihtin a glomerulus within the glomerulus fenestrated capillaries produce an essentially protein free filtrate that is otherwise similar to plasma
afferent arterioles
collect the sstill oxygentated blood from the glomerular capillaries and flows into peritubular capillaries around the convoluted tubules
efferent arteries
capillaries surroundign the ascendigna nd descending tubules from these capillaries the blood is drained into viens that parallel the ateries
vasa recta
the kidneys and ureters are innervated by the
renal nerves
renal nerves are primarily blank symp fibers fromthe superior mesenteric ganglion
postganglionic
regulation of the glomerular blood flow and pressure thoruh ghte regulation of afferent and efferent arterioles stimulation of the rewenin relase direct stimulation of water and soldium ion reabsorption
function sof the kidneys and ureters as innervated by the postganglionic symp fibers from the superior mesenteric ganglion
filters blood empties into tubule
renal corpuscle or glomerulus
rename renal corpuscle
glomerulus
filtrate glood becomes urine where
the tubular system
85% of nephrons are this kind of nephron and are located almost enteirly within the cortex. their loops of henle onl dip a short distance into the medulla they perform more of the secretory and reabsoprptive funcitons
cortical nephrons
the other typeof nephron lies near the cortex medullary junction they deeply invade the medulla and have much longer loops allowing the kidney to produce concentrated urine
juxtamedullary
the initial spherical structure containing the glomerulus
bowmans' capsule