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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Vertebral body
Largest part of vertebra
it is shaped like a short cylinder; adjacent vertebral bodies articulate through a symphysis
Vertebral arch
the ring of bone formed by the paired pedicles and paired laminae of the vertebra
Short strong process
-it connects the body with the transverse process
-it is marked by superior & inferior vertebral notches;
Transverse process
important site for muscle attachment and rib articulation
a lateral process that extends from the junction of the pedicle and the lamina of the vertebra
a broad flat plats of bone located between the transverse process and the spinous process of the vertebra
-it is flattened markedly in the anteroposterior direction; -ligamenta flava span the interval between the laminae of adjacent vertebrae
Articular process
processes that project inferiorly and superiorly from the junction of the lamina and pedicle of the vertebra
two pair on each vertebra (superior and inferior);
the superior articular processes of one vertebra articulate with the inferior processes of the adjacent vertebra through synovial joints
Intervertebral notch
a notch on the superior and inferior surface of the vertebral pedicle
Intervertebral foramen
adjacent intervertebral notches form the intervertebral foramen; an opening for passage of the spinal nerve
Vertebral canal
it contains the spinal cord, meninges, epidural fat and the internal vertebral plexus of veins
Spinous process
a posterior midline process arising from the junction of the two laminae of the vertebra
-it projects downward and inferiorly
-it is an important site of muscle attachment
- spinous processes of cervical vertebra 2-6 are bifid
Cervical vertebrae
cervical vertebrae have the features of the typical vertebra plus all have transverse foramina (for passage of the vertebral artery)
- C2-C6 have bifid spinous processes
- cervical vertebrae have relatively small bodies
- several cervical vertebra are named: atlas, axis, vertebra prominens
Atlas (C1)
first cervical vertebrae
it is called atlas in comparison the mythological Greek Titan Atlas, who bore the weight of the world on his shoulders
- it has no vertebral body, only anterior & posterior arches
- it articulates with the odontoid process of the axis
Axis (C2)
the odontoid process (dens) projects superiorly from its body
- it articulates with the anterior arch of the atlas
Vertebra prominens (C7)
it has a long, non-bifid spinous process which is prominent at the nape of the neck, hence its name
Thoracic vertebrae
thoracic vertebrae have the features of a typical vertebra plus they are characterized by long slender spines that project inferiorly
- they have facets for articulation with ribs
-thoracic vertebrae have bodies of intermediate size
Lumbar vertebrae
lumbar vertebrae have the features of a typical vertebra plus they are characterized by short, blunt spines that project posteriorly;
-lumbar spines do not overlap making the lumbar level a good one for spinal tap
- lumbar vertebrae are built strong and have the largest bodies of all vertebrae
Anterior sacral foramina
there are four pairs
- each transmits the ventral primary ramus of the respective sacral spinal nerve
- branches of the lateral sacral aa. enter the sacral canal through these openings
Posterior sacral foramina
there are four pairs
- each transmits the dorsal primary ramus of the respective sacral spinal nerve
Sacral promontory
a projection of the superior part of the sacrum in an anterior direction
the body of the fifth lumbar vertebra sits on the sacral promontory and articulates with it through a symphysis
Sacral canal
Opening in the center of sacrum
it is the continuation of the vertebral canal at sacral vertebral levels
the coccyx results from the fusion of the four coccygeal vertebrae
- it may be a single bone or the first coccygeal vertebra may be separated from the other three
- it articulates with the fifth sacral segment
- coccygeal vertebrae are reduced in complexity, having no pedicles, laminae or spines
External occipital protuberance
-What attaches at it?
a bump located in the midline on the posterior surface of the occipital bone
-the medial ends of the superior nuchal lines meet at the external occipital protuberance
-the ligamentum nuchae attaches here
Lumbar triangle
-Which muscles form
a triangle defined by the border of the latissimus dorsi m. medially, the external abdominal oblique m. laterally and the iliac crest inferiorly
-its floor is the internal abdominal oblique m
-lumbar triangle may be the site of an abdominal hernia
-also known as: triangle of Petit
Quadrangular space
-What forms it
-What structures pass through it
an area on the posterior surface of the back bounded by the teres minor m. superiorly, the teres major m. inferiorly, the long head of the triceps brachii m. medially and the humerus laterally
-the axillary n. and the posterior circumflex humeral a. pass through this space
Triangle of auscultation
-What forms it
a triangle located below the inferior angle of the scapula bounded by the trapezius m. medially, rhomboideus major m. superiorly and the latissimus dorsi m. inferiorly
-its floor is the posterior thoracic wall
-triangle of auscultation is used to listen to (auscultate) the lungs because the stethoscope can be placed close to the thoracic wall at this location
Triangular space
-What forms?
-Which structures pass through
the space bounded by the teres minor m. superiorly, the teres major m. inferiorly and the long head of the triceps brachii m. laterally
-the circumflex scapular vessels are located in this space as they pass from the axilla to the dorsum of the scapula
Anterior axillary fold
a fold of skin and muscle with the pectoralis major m. as its muscular component
-axillary tail of the mammary gland courses along the anterior axillary fold
Define borders
Which structures contained
fat-filled space located lateral to the thoracic wall and anterior to the scapula
- it is bounded: superiorly by the clavicle, scapula and 1st rib; inferiorly by the axillary fascia
- anteriorly by the pectoralis major and minor mm.
- posteriorly by the subscapularis m.
- laterally by the humerus
- medially by the serratus anterior m. and thoracic wall
-axilla contains the infraclavicular part of the brachial plexus (divisions, cords and terminal branches), the axillary a. and v. and the axillary lymph nodes
Latissimus Dorsi
-Origin and Insertion
Origin - vertebral spines from T7 to the sacrum, posterior third of the iliac crest, lower 3 or 4 ribs, sometimes from the inferior angle of the scapula
Insertion-floor of the intertubercular groove of humerus
Latissimus Dorsi Function
extends the arm and rotates the arm medially
Latissimus Dorsi Innervation
thoracodorsal nerve (C7,8) from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus
Latissimus Dorsi Blood Supply
Thoracodorsal artery
Lat Dorsi distinction
the inserting tendon twists so that fibers originating highest insert lowest
Levator Scapulae
Origin and Insertion
Origin -transverse processes of C1-C4 vertebrae
Insertion - medial border of the scapula
Levator Scapulae action
elevates the scapula
Levator Scapulae Innervation and Blood Supply
Inn - dorsal scapular nerve (C5); the upper part of the muscle receives branches of C3 & C4
BS- dorsal scapular artery
Rhomboideus major
Origin and Insertion
Origin-spines of vertebrae T2-T5
Insertion- medial border of scapula
Rhomboideus major action
retracts, elevates and rotates the scapula inferiorly
Rhomboideus major innervation and BS
Inn - dorsal scapular nerve (C5)
BS - dorsal scapular artery
Rhomboideus minor
Origin and Insertion
Origin -inferior end of the ligamentum nuchae, spines of vertebrae C7 and T1
Insertion-medial border of scapula
Rhomboideus minor action
retracts, elevates and rotates scapula inferiorly
Rhomboideus minor innervation and blood supply
Dorsal scapular nerve
Dorsal scapular artery
Serratus anterior
Origin and Insertion
Origin-ribs 1-8 or 9
Insertion - medial border of scapula
Serratus anterior action
it draws the scapula forward
- the inferior fibers rotate the scapula superiorly
Serratus anterior
Innervation and BS
long thoracic nerve (from ventral rami C5-C7)
Lateral thoracic artery
Origin and Insertion
Origin- medial third of the superior nuchal line, external occipital protuberance, ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of vertebrae C7-T12
Insertion- lateral third of the clavicle, medial side of the acromion and the upper crest of the scapular spine, tubercle of the scapular spine
Trapezius action
elevates and depresses the scapula (depending on which part of the muscle contracts)
- rotates the scapula superiorly
- retracts scapula
Trapezius innervation and blood supply
motor: spinal accessory (XI), proprioception: C3-C4
transverse cervical artery
Parts of erector spinae muscle
I love Sex
Iliocostalis Origin and Insertion
Origin - iliac crest and sacrum
Insertion - angles of ribs
Iliocostalis action
extends and laterally bends the trunk and neck
Iliocostalis innervation and blood supply
-dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C4-S5
-supplied segmentally by: deep cervical a., posterior intercostal aa., subcostal aa., lumbar aa
Intertransversarii origin and insertion
Origin - upper border of transverse process
Insertion-lower border of transverse process above
Longissimus Origin and Insertion
Origin- transverse process at inferior vertebral levels
Insertion- transverse process at
higher vertebral levels and mastoid process
Longissimus action
extends and laterally bends the trunk, neck and head
Innervation of longissimus
dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-S1