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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is the superior opening of the thorax? What covers it and passes through it?

Thoracic inlet. Lateral thirds covered by suprapleural membranes. Esophagus, trachea, vessels, nerves pass through it

What is the inferior boundary of the thorax? What covers it?

Thoracic outlet. Diaphragm

What do the crura of the diaphragm attach to?

Right- first 3 lumbar vertebrae. Left- first 2 lumbar vertebrae

What is the central tendon?

Strong aponeurosis for attachment of the diaphragm's muscle. Foramen for vena cava is within it

What innervates the diaphragm? Is it motor or sensory?

Phrenic nerve. Both

What is the blood supply for the superior region of the diaphragm? What do they branch from?

Superior phrenic arteries (pericardiacophrenic and musculophrenic arteries). Internal thoracic artery

What arteries supply the inferior region of the diaphragm? Where do they branch from?

Inferior phrenic arteries. Usually the aorta, but sometimes the celiac trunk

Where does the mediastinum extend from?

From thoracic inlet to the diaphragm and from sternum to the 12 thoracic vertebrae.

What are the regions of the mediastinum?

Superior and inferior (anterior, middle, posterior)

What is in the superior mediastinum?

Thymus, aortic arch and origin of brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries, superior half of superior vena cava, vagus, recurrent laryngeal, and phrenic nerves, esophagus, thoracic duct, trachea and bifurcation of trachea

What does the anterior mediastinum contain?

Lymph nodes, internal thoracic vein, some minor vessels, and part of thymus

What does the middle mediastinum contain?

Heart, pericardial sac, ascending aorta, inferior half of superior vena cava, termination of azygous vein, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary veins, phrenic nerves

What does the posterior mediastinum contain?

Descending aorta, esophagus, azygous and hemiazygous veins! Thoracic duct, and vagus and splanchnic nerves and thoracic sympathetic trunk

What are the muscular folds in the atria called?

Pectinate muscles

Which ventricle has thicker walls?


What is the interventricular septum made of?

Muscular in inferior two thirds, fibrous in superior third

What are the muscular folds in the ventricles called?

Trabecula carnae

What makes up the atrioventricular valves?

Papillary muscles, chordae tendineae, valve leaflets, cusps

What does the right coronary artery supply?

Right atrium, right ventricle, SA node, AV node, part of left atrium, part of IV septum, some of left ventricle

What does the left coronary artery supply?

Most of left atrium, left ventricle, most of IV septum, AV bundle. Sometimes branches of circumflex supply SA node

What does left dominant and right dominant mean? Codominant?

Left dominant- Posterior interventricular artery is a branch of left coronary artery. Right dominant- posterior interventricular artery is a branch of the right coronary artery. Codominant- both

What artery supplies to AV node? Where does it come from?

Nerve to atrioventricular node. In 80% of people it's a branch of the right coronary artery

What artery supplies the SA node? Where does it come from?

sinoatrial node. In 60% of people it is a branch of the atrial branch of the RCA but in 40% of people it is a branch of the LCA

What vessel do you usually use for a coronary artery bypass graft?

great saphenous vein from thigh

Where is the great cardiac vein?

anterior interventricular sulcus

Where is the middle cardiac vein?

posterior interventricular sulcus

Which veins don't empty into coronary sinus? Where do they empty?

anterior cardiac veins, smallest cardiac veins. Open directly into chambers of heart

Where does the coronary sinus empty?

into right atrium between inferior vena cava and right atrioventricular valve

Where is the sinoatrial node?

junction of superior vena cava and right atrium

Where is the AV node? What part of it sends impulses? Where do the impulses go? What are its terminal branches called? How many contractions can it cause per minute?

in the atrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. atrioventricular bundle. Down the ventricular septum. Purkinje fibers. 45

What forms the cardiac plexus?

cardiac nerves of the autonomic nervous system

What is the parasympathetic component of the heart's actions? What effect does it have?

vagus nerve. Reduces heart rate and force of contraction

Where do the sympathetic fibers for the heart come from?

upper thoracic levels