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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Components of the cardiovascular system
A closed system of the heart (pumps blood) and blood vessels (allow blood to circulate)
Functions of the cardiovascular system
To deliver oxygen and nutrients to cells and tissues
To remove carbon dioxide and other waste products from cells and tissues
Closed cardiovascular system
Blood stays only inside the heart and blood vessels
Orientation of the heart
Pointed apex directed toward left hip, base points toward right shoulder
A double walled sac around the heart, functions as protection, low-friction, attaches heart to diaphragm, serous fluid fills the space inbetween the layers
Fibrous pericardium
Loose and superficial
Serous membrane
Deep to the fibrous pericardium and composed of two layers
Visceral pericardium
Next to heart, also known as the epicardium
Parietal pericardium
Outside layer that lines the inner surface of the fibrous pericardium
Three layers of the heart wall
Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium
The visceral pericardium, the outside connective tissue layer
Middle layer, "skeleton of the heart", mostly cardiac muscle, transmits APs
Inner layer, continuous with the epithelium of blood vessels
Receiving chambers where blood enters the heart, located at the superior of the heart, composed of right and left atrium
Discharging chambers that contract to push blood up and out of the heart, located at the inferior of the heart, composed of right and left ventricle
Prevents blood from mixing between the right and left pump
Interventricular septum
Separates the two ventricles
Interatrial septum
Separates the two atria
Systematic Circulation
Blood flows from the left side of the heart through the body tissues and back to the right side of the heart
Pulmonary Circulation
Blood flows from the right side of the heart to the lungs and back to the left side of the heart
Function of valves
Allow blood to flow in only one direction to prevent backflow
Atrioventricular valves (AV)
Between atria and ventricles, bicuspid valve and tricuspid valve, anchored in place by chordae tendinea. They open during heart relaxation and close during ventricular contraction which prevents blood from backwards into atria
Semilunar valves
Between ventricle and artery. Pulmonary and Aortic semilunar valves. Closed during heart relaxation but open during ventricle contraction to prevent blood from falling back to ventricles
Blood vessels that are taking away from the heart
Artery that leaves the left ventricle
Pulmonary artery
Leave the right ventricle, the pulmonary trunk splits into the right and left pulmonary arteries
Blood vessels carrying blood back to the heart
Superior vena cava
Enters right atrium, drains blood from top of body to the heart
Inferior vena cava
Enters right atrium, drains blood from bottom of body
Pulmonary veins
Enter left atrium, carries blood from the lungs to the heart
Coronary arteries
Branch from the aorta to supply the heart muscle with oxygenated blood
Cardiac veins
Drain the myocardium of blood
Coronary sinus
A large vein on the posterior of the heart, receives blood from cardiac veins
Cardiac Circulation
Blood in the heart chambers does not nourish the myocardium, the heart has its own nourishing circulatory system (coronary arteries, cardiac veins, coronary sinuses). Blood empties into the right atrium via the coronary sinus
Intristic conduction system
Heart muscle cells contract without action potentials in a regular continuous way
Sinoatrial Node
SA node, the "pacemaker" of the heart. Found in the wall of the right atrium
Atrioventricular node
AV node, Is found at the junction of the atria and ventricles
Atrioventricular bundle
Is in the interventricular septum
Heart block
Damage to the intristic conduction system usually SA or AV node damage. Ventricles generate poor rhythm by themselves
Lack of adequate oxygen supply to heart muscle
A rapid, uncoordinated shuddering of the heart muscle (heart failure)
Outside electric shock to reset the normal rhythm of the heart
Rapid heart rate
Slow heart rate
A contraction of the ventricles
Relaxation of the ventricles
How do atria contract?
Cardiac output
Amount of blood pumped by either side (ventricle) of the heart in one minute
Stroke volume
Volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one heart beat, this usually remains constant. About 70ml of blood is pumped out of the left ventricle with each heart beat
Heart rate
Typically 75 beats per minute
Cardiac output formula
Heart rate x stroke volume
Starling's law of the heart
The more the cardiac muscle is stretched, the stronger the contraction
What is the most common way to change cardiac output?
Changing the heart rate
Increased heart rate is regulated by what?
The sympathetic nervous system, during a fight or flight response
Hormones that regulate the heart rate
Epinepherine and Thyroxine
Decreased heart rate is controlled by what?
Parasympathetic nervous system
Role of arteries and arterioles
Carry blood away from the heart
Smaller branches off of main arteries
Capillary bed's function
Location of exchanges between tissues and blood
Function of veins and venules
Return blood towards the heart
Small veins that form larger veins
Is blood always oxygenated?
No, not in pulmonary arteries
Three layers of a blood vessel
Tunica intima, tunica media, tunica externa
Tunica intima
Endothelium, very thin and smooth tissue
Tunica media
Smooth muscle controlled by the sympathetic nervous system, allows blood vessels to change in diameter
Tunica externa
Mostly fibrous connective tissue, serves as a protective layer
Artery structural composition
Arteries have thick tunica media to deal with the blood pressure they endure. Often change diameter with vasoconstriction or dilation depending on the demand for blood in a certain area.
Capillary structural composition
Only one cell layer thick (tunica intima) to allow for exchanges between blood and tissues
Vein structural composition
Has a thinner tunica media then arteries, they contain valves to prevent backflow of blood.
Lumen in veins are larger then arteries.
Large lumen and stretchy walls act as blood reservoirs.
Veins have relatively thin walls.
They have very low blood pressure
Space inside a blood vessel
Blood flow in arteries
Due to ventricular contraction, blood is forced through arteries and arterioles
Blood flow in veins
Veins have very low blood pressure, Blood flow is basically slowed to a stop. Blood gets back to the heart because of the "muscular pump" and "respiratory pump".

Contraction of skeletal muscles squeezes veins, pushes blood upwards (bc valves don't allow downwards movement) back to the heart
Capillary beds consist of which types of vessels?
Vascular shunt and True capillaries
Vascular Shunt
Vessel through a capillary bed connecting an arteriole to a venule
True capillaries
These are exchange vessels. Oxygen and nutrients cross to cells, and carbon dioxide and metabolic waste products cross into blood
Individual capillary characteristics
The diameter is so small blood cells move through one at a time, blood moves very slowly
Precapillary sphincters
Rings of smooth muscle, if relaxed blood goes into capillaries, if constricted blood stays in vascular shunt
Pressure wave of blood in arteries, averages 70-76 beats per minute
Blood pressure
Measurements by health professionals are made on the pressure in large arteries
Systolic blood pressure
pressure at the peak of ventricular contraction
Diastolic blood pressure
pressure when ventricles relax
Peripheral resistance
Amount of friction blood encounters as it flows through vessels
How do kidneys regulate blood pressure?
The kidneys sense blood pressure is low and release renin which causes the release of aldosterone which retains water and sodium in blood to increase blood pressure
Effect of temperature on blood
Heat has a vasodilating effect on blood vessels, cold has a vasoconstricting effect on blood vessels
Low systolic blood pressure, associated with illness
High systolic blood pressure, very dangerous if chronic, very genetic
Intristic conduction system
Allows the heart to beat on its own