Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/80

Click to flip

80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Blood is classified as what in the body?
A connective tissue
Components of blood
Living cells (formed elements) and Non-living matrix (plasma)
What are formed elements?
Cells and platelets in blood
What does centrifuged blood look like?
RBCs sinkk to bottom, buffy coat in the middle, and Plasma rises to the top
Buffy Coat
A whitish thin layer between the RBCs and Plasma in centrifuged blood. Composed of Leukocytes and platelets
Hematocrit
Percent of red blood cells by volume
Erythrocytes
Red Blood Cells
Leukocytes
White Blood Cells
Physical Characteristics of Blood
1. Color range
2. pH must remain between 7.35-7.45
3. Blood temp. is 100.4
4. Blood volume is 5-6 liters
5.Blood makes up 8% of body weight
Color range of blood
Oxygen rich blood is scarlet red, oxygen poor blood is dull red
Blood plasma composition
90% water, nutrients, salts, gasses, hormones, proteins, waste products
Function of nutrients in plasma
small molecules used for building blocks and energy blocks
Salts (electrolytes) in plasma
Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, bicarbonate, and Chloride
Respiratory gasses in plasma
Small amount of Oxygen, Large amount of Carbon Dioxide
Plasma Protein characteristics
Most abundant solutes in plasma, made by the liver,
Types of plasma proteins
Albumin, clotting proteins, antibodies
Albumin
Plasma protein that regulates osmotic pressure, carries lipids
Clotting Proteins
Found in plasma, help to stem blood loss when a blood vessel is injured
Antibodies
Found in plasma, help protect the body from pathogens
Osmotic pressure of blood
Keeps water in plasma rather then losing water to tissues
Waste products in plasma
Urea, uric acid, ammonia, creatinine. Produced constantly, end up excreted in urine
Fibrinogen
most common clotting protein
Globulin
Most common antibody
Acidosis
When blood becomes too acidic (helps restore blood pH to normal when it becomes too basic)
Alkalosis
Blood becomes too basic (helps restore blood pH to normal when it becomes too acidic)
Function of erythrocytes
main function is to carry oxygen
Anatomy of erythrocytes
Biconcave disks, essentially bags of hemoglobin, no nucleus (lost during development), contain very few organelles
Hemoglobin
Iron-containing protein, each hemoglobin has four oxygen binding sites
Anemia
A decrease in the oxygen-carrying ability of the blood
Sickle cell anemia
Results from abnormally shared hemoglobin, doesn't carry oxygen well
Polycythemia
An excessive or abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes
Iron-deficiency anemia
Need iron in our diets to make hemoglobin, can be caused in women by menses
Pernicious anemia
Inability to absorb vitamin B12
Adaptive polycythemia
Normal increase in red blood cells, needed during pregnancy, change in altitude, and during smoking
Polycythemia vera
Due to bone marrow cancer, can lead to anemia
How leukocytes work
Move in and out of blood vessels, move by ameboid motion, can respond to chemicals released by damaging tissues
Immune cells
Act to destroy bacteria, viruses, cancerous cells, cellular debris, foreign particles, dead cells
Diapedesis
Moving out of blood vessels into tissues
Ameboid motion
moving like an ameoba
Chemotaxis
movement of cells in response to a chemical signal
Leukocytosis
Too many white blood cells, this generally indicates an infection
Leukopenia
Abnormally low white blood cell count, caused by corticosteroids and anticancer agents
Leukemia
Bone marrow becomes cancerous, turns out excess white blood cells, the white blood cells are malformed and nonfunctional so the immune system begins to fail.
Types of leukocytes
Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
Granulocytes
Include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. They posses lobed nuclei and visible granules
Agranulocytes
Include lymphocytes and monocytes. Nuclei are spherical, lack visible granules
Neutrophils
Function as phagocytes at active sites of infection, they increase during infection. Account for almost half of WBCs
Eosinophils
Function to kill parasitic worms, emit toxic compounds which initiate general inflammation response
Basophils
Release histamine at sites of inflammation, contain heparin
Histamine
Dilates blood vessels makes blood vessels leaky, calls for other WBCs
Heparin
Anticoagulent (stops clotting)
Lymphocytes
Functions as part of the immune response, include B and T lymphocytes
B Lymphocytes
Produce antibodies to foreign particles
T Lymphocytes
"Killer T cells" Phagocytes that have chemical weapons such as hydrogen peroxide, they mature in the thymus
Monocytes
Largest of the WBC, function as macrophages, important in fighting chronic infection
Platelets
Derived from ruptured multinucleated cells, needed for clotting in blood
Hematopoiesis
Formation of all formed elements in blood,BC formation, Occurs in red bone marrow
Hemocytoblast
Stem cell that all blood cells are derived from
Hemocytoblast differentiation
Lymphoid stem cell produces lymphocytes, myeloid stem cell produces all other formed elements
Wearing out of RBC
They are unable to divide or grow so they wear out in 100 to 120 days. When worn out RBC are eliminated by phagocytes in the spleen or liver. They are replaced by division of hemocytoblasts in the red bone marrow
What happens to old red blood cells?
They get stuck in capillaries in the spleen or liver and are broken down by macrophages, these broken down parts are recycled into mostly hemoglobin
How is red blood cell production controlled?
The rate is controlled by the protein erythropoietin, the homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback from blood oxygen levels
Erythropoietin
Produced by the kidneys in response to reduced oxygen levels in the blood, it is a hormone that regulates erythrocyte production
Colony stimulating factors
promote bone marrow to generate leukocytes
Thrombopoietin
stimulates production of platelets
Interleukins
promote bone marrow to generate leukocytes
3 Phases of blood homeostasis
Vascular spasms, Platelet plug formation, Coagulation
Fibrinolysis
The breaking down of a blood clot after tissue repair
Homeostasis of blood
Stoppage of bleeding when there is a break in a blood vessel, blood usually clots with 6min
Plasmin
Enzyme that tears apart fiber mesh in clotting
Thrombus
A clot in an unbroken blood vessel, can be deadly in areas like the heart
Embolus
A thrombus that breaks away and floats freely in the bloodstream. Can later clog vessels in critical areas such as the brain (stroke), heart (heart attack), or lungs (pulmonary embolism)
Thrombocytopenia
A platelet deficiency, result is normal movements causing bleeding from small blood vessels that require platelets for clotting
Hemophilia
Hereditary bleeding disorder, normal clotting factors are missing
Blood loss symptoms
15-30% loss causes weakness, 30% or more causes shock
How blood is typed
By certain antibodies that attach to antigens
Agglutination
blood proteins clumping
Rh factor
Protein found in plasma, either positive or negative if you have the protein you are positive if you don't you're negative
Sites of blood cell formation
Red bone marrow, liver, and spleen
Physiologic jaundice
Occurs in infants when the liver can not rid the body of hemoglobin breakdown products fast enough