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111 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

PNS synapses

where 2 neurons meet.

polysynaptic pathways


monosynaptic pathways

2 neurons, 1 sensory and 1 motor. these are the reflexes. (achilles, patellar, gag)


occur in the brain to (chemo). cells or tissues that respond to internal or external stimuli. communications

categories of stimuli

mechano- physical force activates them

chemo-activated by chemicals (neurotrans)

photo- detect light in the retina

baro-pressure, monitor BP in carotids and aorta

thermo-monitor temp

noci-pain detection, not in brain


meissners corpsules/tactile- in dermal skin layer

pacinian sorpules- in deep dermis and hypodermis, fr deep pressure sensations

ruffini endings- in deep dermis, hypodermis, and joints for deep continuous pressure


in CNS and PNS. helps control the autonomic nervous system using neurotransmitters.

2 types of neurotransmitters (ACH and mimics of ACH)

cholinergic- nicotinic (nicotine mimics ACH) in adrenal glands, and muscarinic (mushroom poison, in parasympathetic fibers and sweat glands)

adrenergic- epinephrine and norepinephrine. alpha- in blood vessels, constricts them

beta- heart and on bronchials

beta blockers

block the receptors, blocks beta 1 receptors on the heart and blocks attachment of adrenaline to heart to keep consistent rhythm.

beta 2

on bronchioles. adrenaline binds to beta 2 and causes constriction of bronchioles. problem for asthma people. inhales mimics adrenaline and binds to beta 2 to block adrenergic receptors.

cranial nerves

10 enter brain stem

2 enter upper brain (cerebrum)

spinal nerves

8 cervical

12 thoracic

5 lumbar

5 sacral

1 coxxygeal

dorsal root

sensory neurons only

ventral root

motor neurons only


initial branching of a spinal nerve carrying both sensory and motor neurons

ventral plexus

branching network of intersecting nerves


come off of the ventral ramus

cervical plexus

nerve fibers come off of c1-c4. head neck shoulders diaphragm (phrenic nerve)

brachial plexus

c5-t1. chest shoulders arms hands (axillary nerve)

thoracic plexus


lumbar plexus

t12-l4. back abdomonal, legs (femoral nerve)

sacral plexus

l5-s3. pelvis, butt, genitals, legs, feet, (sciactic nerve)

coxxygeal plexus

s4-coxxyx. tailbone, coccygeal nerve.


electrical equilibrium

resting potential. -70mv. lo hi lo lo hi. insidee the cell. Na,K,Ca,Cl,Pr

axonal hillcock

where axon joins cell body. if enough Na ions reach the hillcock, it initiates an action potential

location of channels

VR Ca- on knob

VR K- on axon

VR Na- on axon

CR Na- on the receiving knob

graded potentials

excitatory post synaptic potential (EPSP)

not an action potential. approaches threshold. sodium into the post synaptic neuron

action potential

cant have it without EPSP. enough NA to reach threshold. so it spikes and depolorizes. then VR NA close. NA and K flow out making the cell (-)

absolute refrctory period

when VR NA channels are closed and inactivated for service. once they open for NA and close it is completely closed

relative refractory period

super normal stimulus or secondary strong stimulus could cause an action potential


part of action potential. K channels are quick to open and slow to close. they let a little too much K out below resting potential

eye anatomy

anterior cavity with aqueous humor has anterior and posterior chambers.

posterior cavity- vitreous humor that is jelly like. presses on retina so it is smooth and wrinkle free


anterior clear covering of iris and pupil. protection but more prone to infection. not as tough as sclera but clear


outermost layer of eye. fibrous connective tissue. white tough part of eye


middle layer. highly vascularized. brings oxygen and nutrients to the eye


innermost layer of eye with photoreceptors. called the movie screen. has rods and cones

ciliary body and suspensory ligaments

change the shape of the lens and hold the lens in place


biconvex structure. focus images on the retina


pigment containing structure


found opening in iris. controls light entering the eye

pupillary constrictor- smooth muscles to help diamater of pupil control. decreases diameter.

pupillary dialator- contractile epitheleal cells. myoepitheleal cells.

fovea centralis

posterior area of retina. highest visual acuity. cones

blind spot

area anterior to optic nerve. no photreceptors

panramic vision

wide field of view. good PV means you lose good depth perception

binocular vision

limited FOV but excellent in depth perception

tapetum lucidum

reflective tissue imbedded behind retina to catch and reflect light back to retina. have diff colors that reflect back


rods, cones


for dim light and periphereal vision. non sharp images. turn sideways for better view


for bright light and high visual acuity. categories based on wavelength

s- short, blue

m-medium, greens

l- long , see red

color blindness
genetic, x linked, 8-10% males have it. lack of cone types. males are XY and females are XX. females have two dominant X so one cancels the bad one out. males dont have this so if X is defective they have it regardless of Y


near sightedness- distant objects focus in front of the retina. use concave


far sighted ness. distant objects focus beyond the retina. use convex


pressure in the eye compresses the retina or the optic nerve. leads to blindness


hardening or clouding up of the lens. treatable. VIT c helps


unequal curves of the cornea or lens


light sbsorbing molecules that is capable of translating light into electrical signals. vit A helps.


protein that combines with retinal to form the four pigments of the eye


purple pigment of rods. accumulates in dim light and requires little light to stimulate rods

light adaptation

going from dark to light. full bleaching of rods causes white blurry glare until adjusted

dark adaptation

from light to dark at first retina cant form any images. going from cones to rods. no sufficient light to stimulate cones. rhodopsin builds and rods are activated

hearing pathway

external auditory canal à tympanic membrane à malleus, incus, stapes àoval window àscala vestibuli àscalamedia àOrgan of Corti (hair cells and nerves) àscala tympani àroundwindow (reverse flow)


feelingof dizziness or nausea caused by inner–a.caused by inflammation or–b.mechanical damage to equilibrium structures (ampulla, semicircular canals, orvestibule


ringingor clicking sound inabsence ofnoise–a.symptom of inflammation–b.side effect to some meds (ie. aspirin)–c.symptom of sensorineuraldeafness


damageto neural structures of inner ear (ie. Cochlear hair cells)–a.loud sound–b.prolonged exposure to > 90 dB–- canget cochlear implant in severe cases

ottis media

middleear infection-very common in kids due to auditory canal

conduction deafness

blockage of sound propagation–a.earwax–b.ruptured eardrum (tympanic membrane)–c.otitis media

external ear

pinna, lobule, external auditory meatus, ceruminus glands

middle ear

tympanic membrane (ear drum)- conduct mechanical sound waves to ear ossicles

malleus, incus, stapes, auditory tube (eustacian) connects middle ear to nasopharynx

inner ear

bony labyrinths- hold perilymph

vestibule - egg cavity

cochlea-snail, pea sides, chamber of bony. nerves receptors for hearing

semicircular canals-attach to vestibule.

oval window- stapes connects to inner ear cochlea and creates waves in perilymph of scala vesetibule

round window- receives sound waves from scala tympaniinferior to oval window, equalizing pressure

inner ear

membranous labyrinths- endolymph

scala media- cochlearduct -containsOrgan of Corti haircells, stereocilia,& nerves -containsTectoral& Basilar Membranes


skeletal msucle attaches to stapes and when contracted pulls stapes away from tympanic membrane. dampen sound

tensor tympani

attaches to mallus and pulls it medially in contraction and tesnes tympanic membrane dampen sound

tympanic relfex

adaptationto soften very loud sounds to protect inner ear.


pressure disturbance made by vibrating object. measured in waves


number of waves that passes at a given point in a given time.

high- shorter waves and more pass

low- long waves and fewer pass

human hearing range= -0.2 to 20 khz. best at 1.5-4 khz


how we percieve different frequencies . can detect .002-.003 khz difference.


intensity (loudness) of sound


units of measuring sound amplitude. dB.

normal convo- 50 db

noisy- 70 db

over 90 causes hearing loss.

threshold for sound to be percieved as pain is 120 db. concerts are around this.

pinna and lobules

collect sound

ear ossicles

malleus incus stapes. conduct mechanical sound waves to inner ear


involuntary rapid eye movement

ten cranial nerves

olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear,trigeminal, abduceas, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharnygeal, vagus, accesory, hypoglosseal

OOO, tiny testes always fudge vags gay vags are hideous

function of the cranial nerves

some, say, mary, money, but (both), my, brother, says, big, brains, matter, more

functions of the nerves:


optic- vision

oculomotor- eye movement

trochlear- eye movement

trigeminal- S=tppt in head m=chewing

abduceus- eye movement

facial- s=taste m=facial expression,

vestibulococlear- hearing, ane equilibrium

glossopharyngeal- s=taste tppt m=swallow, speech, auton

accessory- swallowing and head move

hypoglosseal- tongue move and speech and swallow


makes 6 hormones that regulate anterior pituitary and two that it stores in posterior pituitary

hypothalamu hormones

growth hormone releasing hormone= promotes secretion of GH from anterior piruitary gland which makes the GH

somatostatin- inhibits secretion of GH and TSH (from pituitary). this and GHRH are antagonistic

oxytocin- causes uterin contractions and lactation. pair bonding in both sexes. stored in post pit.

antidiuretic ADH- vasopressin. acts on nephrons in kidneys to retain water. regulate BP. put ADH in system to add water to blood or to raise BP. stored and released by post pit.

pituitary glands

two lobes that act separetely


makes 6 hormones. know 4

follicle stimulating hormone- sexually dimorphic. females stimulates secretion of sex hormones and follicle production in ovairies, estrogen, preogesterone. in males it stimulates sperm productions and acts on testes

lutinizing hormone- females promotes ovulation, males signals secretion of testosterone

thyroid stimulating- stimulates thyroid gland to release TH

growth hormone- acts on bones, skeletal system for growth

dificiencies in growth hormone

hyper before puberty- causes gigantism

hyper after puberty- acromelegaly- big head

hypo before puberty- putuitary dwarfism all proportional but the head

posterior pituitary

stores only ADH and oxytocin

pineal gland

melatonin, sets carcadian rhythm


effects all cells but brain, spleen, testes, uterus, and thyroid glands. makes thyroid hormone. which combines with iodine to make thyroxine and triiodotohorine (active).

hyposecretion- myxedemal (lack iodine) causes goiters

hyper secretion- graves disease ( inc metabolism, heart palp, big eyes)


parathormone, controls blood CA levels, vit D inactive when ingested or produced by skin, stimulates kidneys to met vit D into active form (calcitriol). hypersecretion- hypercalcemia- inc blood CA depressed NS and causes kidney stones


thymosin- inc T lymphocytes and mautres them until puberty then atrophies


adrenal medulla- epi, norepi, dopamine

adrenal cortex- 30 hormones from cholestoral. aldosterone (H20), glucocortoids (stress cortisols), test, estrogen


endocrine and exocrine functions. secrestes hormone and digestive enxymes

insulin in pancreas

produced by beta cells. signals uptake of sugar, reduces blood sugar, takes sugar from blood to cells

glucagon in pancreas

made my alpha cells. stimulates breakdown of glycogen into glucos. inc blood sugar

type 1 diabetes

juvenille, genetic. 5-10% cases. beta cells are faulty and dont make insulin. makes lots of glucose so they have to take insulin

type 2 diabetes

adult onset- indulin resistance. 90% cases. leading causes are enviro


1990-6.6 mill, 2012-29 mill. symptoms urination, thirsty, fatigue, blurry vision, numbness

7th leading cause of death, 9% pop has it

causes for type 2

DIET, EXERCISE, GENETIC LINKS. 36 genes contribute

gestational diabetes

develops in pregnancy. 24 week mark. baby makes mom insulin resistant. fetal problems. goes away after pregnancy

glands and locations

brain- hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal

throat- thyoid, parathyroid

thoracic cavity- thymus

abdominal cavity-pancreas, adrenal glands

pelvic- ovaries, ,testes

endocrine system

regulatesphysiological processes of body via chemicals (hormone-like neurotransmitters,paracrines, or regular hormones)

cell to cell communication in system

1. gap junctions – most cells in body use

2.neurotransmitters – chemical messengers 3.paracrines – chemical messenger whose effects are restricted to the immediate vicinity of the cells thatsecrete it. AKA “local hormones”

4. hormones – chemical messengers that is secreted into the bloodstream& can trigger physiological response inDISTANT cells


1. produced by endocrine glands

2.carried in circulatory system (blood plasma) 3.react with specific receptors = receptor specific! Example: Thyroid StimulationHormone (TSH) can only react with the Thyroid Gland

functional effects of hormones

1. kinetic– can cause muscle contraction & glandular secretions 2.metabolic – increase or decrease rate of biological processes 3.morphogenic – changes in growth & differentiation (1 cell-type to another) example: blood cell precursor Myeloblast can become basophils, eosinophils, or neutrophils (specific typesof white blood cells) 4.behavioral – effect the NS to cause behavioral changes (can be mild, moderate to DRASTIC behavioral changes!).Think PMS for some females.


secrete products into an organ OR onto the bodysurface (usually uses ducts to deliver theproduct) examples:holocrine, merocrine, apocrine, sweat, mammary, oil, etc.

endocrine glands

secrete hormones DIRECTLY into bloodstream*these glandshave a high density of fenestrated capillaries – capillaries with small pores/holes(so they are selectively leaky)

specialty glands

liver cells (hepatocytes) can act like exocrine & endocrine glands!!!

exocrinelike function: secretes bile through ducts into small intestines

endocrinelike function: secretes hormones into blood

otherroles: secretes blood-clotting factors into blood that are NOT hormones

endocrine vs nervous sys

endocrine- chemical, start time is seconds to days, end time is days to weeks.

nervous- electrical and chemical, milliseconds start to end.

they regulate each other. neuronscan trigger hormone release - hormones can stimulate or inhibitneurons