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284 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

An organ contains

two or more tissues grouped together that function together

The human integumentary system includes

skin, nails, hair follicles, and glands.

Nerve fibers scattered throughout the dermis are associated with

muscles, glands, and sensory receptors.

Which of the following is not correct concerning the skin?

The subcutaneous layer is between the dermis and the epidermis.

As cells are pushed from the deeper part of the epidermis toward the surface

they die.

The skin

retards water loss from deeper tissues, excretes wastes, regulates body temperature, synthesizes vitamin D

The major blood vessels that supply skin cells are found in the

subcutaneous layer.

Skin cancer cells are most likely to develop from

nonpigmented epithelial cells

Which of the following is not a method for helping prevent pressure ulcer formation?

Maintaining one body position

The main function of melanocytes is to

produce melanin.

Epidermal cells are supplied with nutrients from blood vessels located in the

subcutaneous layer.

Pressure ulcers are usually associated with skin overlying

bony projections.

Cutaneous carcinomas are most commonly caused by exposure to

ultraviolet light.

Which of the following is a characteristic of the person most likely to develop a cutaneous carcinoma?

Over forty years of age, Often works outdoors, Light-complexioned skin, Often plays outdoors

The most common cause of cutaneous melanoma is

relatively short exposure to high intensity sunlight.

Injections that are administered into the tissues of the skin are called


Skin cells play an important role in the production of vitamin


Exposure to ultraviolet light darkens the skin by stimulating production of


The shaft of a hair is composed of

dead epidermal cells.

A nail consists of a

. nail bed and nail plate.

Eccrine sweat glands

respond primarily to elevated body temperature.

Acne is a disorder involving the

sebaceous glands

The regulation of body temperature is of vital importance because

slight shifts in temperature can disrupt the rates of metabolic reactions

Which of the following is a normal response to excess loss of body heat in a cold environment?

Dermal blood vessels constrict, Sweat glands become inactive, Skeletal muscles contract involuntarily, Less blood flows to dermal vessels,

The granulations that appear during the healing of a large, open wound are composed mainly of

fibroblasts surrounding blood vessels.

Which of the following increase the risk of developing osteoporosis?

Low intake of dietary calcium

Lack of physical exercise


Low intake of vitamin D

An osteocyte is a _______

bone cell surrounded by matrix.

The microscopic bony chambers that house mature bone cells are called _______


The salts that are abundant in the extracellular matrix of bone tissue consist largely of _______

calcium phosphate.

Which of the following is NOT a step in the formation of endochondral bone?

Hyaline cartilage changes to adipose tissue.

Bone that develops within sheetlike layers of connective tissue is called _______

intramembranous bone.

Red bone marrow functions in the formation of _______

red and white blood cells and platelets.

The cells responsible for removing excess bone tissue after the fracture repair process are _______


Which of the following bones is NOT included within the lower limb?


Which of the following is NOT included in the appendicular skeleton?

Vertebral column

Which of the following is included in the pectoral girdle?


The zygomatic arch is composed of processes of the _______

zygomatic and temporal bones.

Which of the following is part of the facial skeleton?

Maxillary bone

A cleft palate results from incomplete development of the _______


Cervical vertebrae can be distinguished from other types by the presence of

transverse foramina.

Which of the following bones has an acromion process?


A hip bone includes a (an) _______




. acetabulum.

The joints between the vertebrae of the backbone are best described as _______

slightly movable.

The degenerative joint disease osteoarthritis may develop as a result of damage to the _______

articular cartilage.

A bone includes _______

bone tissue.


dense connective tissue.


Which of the following is not a function of bone?

To provide nervous communication from bone to muscle

The zygomatic bone is an example of a (an) _______

irregular bone.

Articular cartilage is _______

hyaline cartilage.

The presence of an epiphyseal plate indicates that _______

the bone is lengthening.

Sinuses are found within all of the following bones except the _______

zygomatic bones.

Which of the following describes the female pelvis compared to that of the male?

The distance between the female ischial spines is greater.

The femur _______

is the longest bone in the body.

extends from the hip to the knee.

has a large rounded head.

articulates with the patella.

Which of the following terms and descriptions is correctly paired?

Pronation-turning the hand so the palm is downward or facing posteriorly (in anatomical position)

A sarcomere is best described as _______

a unit within a myofibril

Myofibrils are composed primarily of

actin and myosin

A motor unit typically includes

one motor neuron and several muscle fibers

The electrical impulse that triggers a contraction travels deep into a skeletal muscle fiber by means of

transverse tubules

Neurotransmitter molecules are stored in vesicles within

motor neuron endings

The enzyme acetylcholinesterase causes acetylcholine to


Creatine phosphate

supplies energy for the synthesis of ATP

Binding sites on the surface of actin allow the formation of cross bridges with molecules of


The amount of oxygen needed to support the conversion of lactic acid to glucose by the liver is called the

oxygen debt

A muscle cramp is most likely due to a temporary lack of


An example of a partial but sustained contraction of a whole muscle is

eye blinking

The characteristic reddish brown color of skeletal muscle comes from which substance?


The threshold stimulus is the

minimum strength of stimulus required to cause muscle fiber contraction to occur

Rigor mortis that occurs in skeletal muscles a few hours after death is due to

lack of ATP, increased membrane permeability to calcium ions

The increase in the number of motor units activated as a result of more intense stimulation is called


In a recording of a muscle twitch, the delay between the time a stimulus is applied and the time the muscle responds is called the

latent period

Activities such as distance swimming and distance running are most likely to stimulate development of

slow fatigue-resistant muscle fibers

When a muscle undergoes atrophy in response to disuse,

there is a reduction in capillary networks

the number of mitochondria decreases

the size of actin and myosin filaments decreases

the muscle gets smaller

Multiunit smooth muscle

responds to stimulation by neurons and certain hormones

The term "muscle" can refer to

a cell

a tissue

an organ

Compared to skeletal muscle, smooth muscle

contracts more slowly and relaxes more slowly

Functions of muscle include

the heartbeat.

muscle tone.

production of heat.

moving body parts.

The moveable end of a muscle is attached at its


The muscle primarily responsible for opposing a particular action is called the


Which of the following is NOT a type of neuroglia?


In the central nervous system myelin is formed by

Schwann cells.

The cellular processes of neurons that provide receptive surfaces for input from other neurons are


Masses of myelinated nerve fibers appear


Ischemic cell damage is caused by a lack of blood flow, which deprives cells of


An infant's responses to stimuli are coarse and undifferentiated because its nerve fibers

are not completely myelinated.

Which describes the ion concentrations inside and outside of a neuron?

The sodium ion concentration is higher on the outside of the cell and potassium ion concentration is higher on the inside of the cell

Which is true of drugs that decrease membrane permeability to sodium ions?

Some are used as local .

They may block nerve impulses from moving along the axon.

They may prevent the perception of pain.

They work by blocking sodium channels in the cell membrane.

During an action potential, depolarization occurs as a result of

sodium ions diffusing to the inside of the cell membrane.

During an action potential, repolarization occurs as a result of

potassium ions diffusing to the outside of the cell membrane.

When a neuron becomes more excitable as a result of incoming subthreshold stimulation, it is said to be


Which of the following lists parts of a reflex arc in the correct sequence?

Receptor, sensory neuron, motor neuron, effector

Within the meninges, cerebrospinal fluid occupies the

subarachnoid space.

In the case of a subdural hematoma (blood accumulating beneath the dura) resulting from a blow to the head, blood accumulates between the

dura mater and arachnoid mater.

The pressure of cerebrospinal fluid is usually measured by introducing a hollow needle between lumbar vertebrae into the

subarachnoid space.

The spinothalamic tract conducts impulses

up the spinal cord to the thalamus.

The part of the brain that coordinates voluntary muscle movements is the


Which of the following is most closely associated with the diencephalon?


The complex network of tiny islands of gray matter in the brain that "awakens" the cerebral cortex is the

reticular formation

The cardiac and vasomotor center are located in the

medulla oblongata.

The phrenic nerves arise from the

cervical plexuses.

The respiratory areas are in the pons and in the

medulla oblongata.

Amphetamines have stimulating effects on the nervous system because they

. release norepinephrine.

Which of the following are adrenergic fibers?

Sympathetic postganglionic fibers

Cancer patients often develop endocrine disorders because

cancer cells sometimes secrete hormones inappropriately.

Steroid hormones produce their effects by

. activating genes.

Hormone concentrations are regulated by

levels of substances in the blood only.

The secretion of hormones from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is largely controlled by

releasing hormones from the hypothalamus.

Which of the following is secreted by neurosecretory cells in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland?

Antidiuretic hormone

Growth hormone

promotes the movement of amino acids into cells only.

increases the rate of cell division only.

increases the rate of fat metabolism only.

promotes bone growth only.

Which of the following hormones exerts its effect primarily on the reproductive organs?

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Diabetes insipidus is caused by

a lack of ADH.

Growth hormone release is stimulated by

growth hormone releasing hormone.


increases the rate at which proteins are synthesized.

The hormone that decreases the plasma calcium concentration is


Cretinism is caused by


A person with an abnormally high metabolic rate, who is underweight and who has protruding eyes is exhibiting symptoms of


The secretion of parathyroid hormone is controlled primarily by the

plasma calcium concentration.

Parathyroid hormone stimulates

osteoclast activity.

An example of a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla is


Aldosterone promotes the homeostasis of ions by causing the kidneys to

conserve sodium and excrete potassium.


stimulates the production of glucose from noncarbohydrates.

The neurons that stimulate secretions from cells of the adrenal medulla are best described as

sympathetic neurons.

A deficiency of hormones from the adrenal medulla is likely to produce

None of -

high blood pressure.

increased heart rate.

elevated blood sugar.

sodium loss in the urine.

Insulin causes

a decrease in the concentration of blood glucose.

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by

glucose in the urine.

excess urine production.


increased thirst.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is caused by

a disorder of the immune system.

Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus usually includes

controlling the diet.

exercising regularly.

maintaining desirable body weight.

reducing sugar intake.

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone, which regulates the formation of melanin, is produced by the

pineal gland.

A person who is experiencing the effects of chronic stress usually has

increased blood pressure

The cardiovascular system consists of all of the following except


The pulmonary circuit

sends deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

The tissue that forms a loose-fitting sac around the heart is the

fibrous pericardium.

Which of the following represents the correct sequence of parts through which blood moves from the vena cava to the lungs?

Right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve

The skeleton of the heart consists of

fibrous connective tissue in the interventricular septum.

fibrous connective tissue encircling the heart valves.

The pain of angina pectoris comes from a blockage in an artery that supplies the


When the ventricular walls contract, the

bicuspid and tricuspid valves close.

Which of the following structures consists of self-exciting tissue?

Sinoatrial node

The correct sequence of parts that function to carry cardiac impulses is

SA node, AV node, AV bundle, Purkinje fibers.

In an ECG pattern, the P wave is caused by

depolarization of atrial muscle fibers.

In an ECG pattern, the T wave is caused by

repolarization of ventricular muscle fibers.

In an ECG pattern, the P-Q interval indicates how long it takes for the cardiac impulse to travel from the

SA node to the ventricular muscular fibers.

Impulses carried to the heart by means of fibers that secrete acetylcholine are

parasympathetic impulses and cause the heart rate to decrease.

An abnormally slow heart rate is termed


The effect on the heart of excess potassium ion concentration usually is

decreased rate and decreased force of contraction.

Sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system stimulate smooth muscle in artery and arteriole walls to


Which of the following is not a risk factor for atherosclerosis?

Diet high in unsaturated fats

Which type of blood vessel serves as a blood reservoir?


The density of capillaries within a tissue varies directly with the tissue's

rate of metabolism.

Plasma proteins in blood capillaries help to

maintain the osmotic pressure of the blood.

Because net inward pressure in venular capillary ends is less than net outward pressure at the arteriolar ends of capillaries

more fluid leaves the capillaries than returns.

The blood pressure in the systemic arteries is greatest during

ventricular systole.

Starling's law of the heart holds that the

greater the length of myocardial fibers, the greater the force with which they contract.

Which of the following helps return blood to the heart?

Contracting skeletal muscles

Which of the following is not a branch of the aorta?

Pulmonary artery

Blood from the face and scalp is drained by the

external jugular vein.

Excess fluid is kept from accumulating in tissue spaces by

the lymphatic system.

The structure of a lymphatic vessel is most similar to that of a(an)


The two collecting ducts that drain the lymphatic trunks are

the thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct.

The formation of lymph increases as a result of

increasing osmotic pressure in tissue fluid.

The movement of lymph through lymphatic vessels is caused largely by

muscular activity.

Stephanie has her cancerous right breast removed, and the surgeon also removes lymph nodes in the axillary region. As a result, Stephanie's right arm

becomes edematous.

The region of a lymph node through which blood vessels pass is called the


Cells in a lymph node that engulf and destroy damaged cells, foreign substances, and cellular debris are


The spleen

is a blood reservoir.

responds to low oxygen concentration.

contains many macrophages.

resembles a large lymph node divided into nodules.

Interferon is a group of proteins that cells produce in response to


The most active phagocytic cells in circulating blood are

neutrophils and monocytes.

Which of the following is an example of a specific body defense mechanism?


The cells that are primarily responsible for immunity are

lymphocytes and macrophages.

T lymphocytes are responsible for

the cellular immune response.

HIV infects


In HIV infection, reverse transcriptase

makes DNA from viral RNA.

A normal immune response requires

both T and B cells.

The most abundant type of immunoglobulin is


A newborn infant may have some defense against digestive and respiratory disturbances because of IgA obtained from its mother's


The type of resistance that is a response to contracting an infectious disease is

naturally acquired active immunity

As a result of an allergen-antibody reaction,

mast cells release histamine.

In an autoimmune disease, the immune response is directed toward

cells of the body ("self").

Which of the following is an autoimmune disease?

uvenile rheumatoid arthritis

Multiple sclerosis

Type 1 diabetes mellitus

Systemic lupus erythematosus

The digestive system

mechanically and chemically breaks down food for nutrient absorption.

The alimentary canal extends, in its entirety, from

the mouth to the anus.

The correct sequence for the layers within the wall of the alimentary canal from inside to outside is

mucosa, submucosa, muscular layer, serosa.

Peristalsis occurs in the digestive tract

from the pharynx to the anus.

The uvula is

a projection of the soft palate.

Because of their location, swollen palatine tonsils may interfere with

both breathing and swallowing.

The teeth that are best adapted for biting off relatively large pieces of food are the


Microorganisms promote the development of dental cavities by metabolizing carbohydrates and releasing by-products that are


Salivary amylase digests


In the swallowing reflex

the soft palate, larynx, and hyoid bone are raised.

the epiglottis closes off the top of the trachea.

the tongue presses against the uvula and soft palate.

muscles pull the pharynx upward toward the food.

A hiatal hernia is due to a weakness of the


The main part of the stomach is called the


The parietal cells of gastric glands secrete

hydrochloric acid.

Gastrin, which stomach cells secrete

increases the secretion by the gastric glands.

Which of the following is a protein-splitting enzyme found in pancreatic juice?


All of the enzymes that digest protein are

secreted in inactive form.

Acute pancreatitis is often caused by the conversion of

trypsinogen to trypsin.

The hormone secretin

stimulates the release of pancreatic fluid.

Cholecystokinin secretion from the intestinal wall is stimulated by the presence of

proteins and fats in the small intestine.

The liver

forms glucose from noncarbohydrates.

stores vitamin D.

destroys damaged red blood cells.

forms urea.

Which constituent of bile has a digestive function?

Bile salts

Jaundice, which is characterized by a yellowish tinge to the tissues, is due to an increased blood concentration of

bile pigments.

Gallstones are usually composed of


Severe liver damage would most likely affect digestion of


The greater omentum is composed of

the peritoneal membrane.

The epithelial cells that form the inner lining of the small intestine

are replaced every few days.

Lactose intolerance is caused by

deficiency of lactase.

One of the major functions of the large intestine is to

reabsorb water from chyme.

c. regulate the release of bile.

During the defecation reflex,

the diaphragm lowers.

The American Heart Association recommends that the percentage of calories in a person's diet derived from fats should not exceed


Plant proteins typically contain less than adequate amounts of

essential amino acids.

The results of poor nutrition from lack of nutrients or failure to use them is


Microorganisms removed from incoming air by sticky airway mucus are most likely to be destroyed by

the digestive action of gastric juice.

The vocal cords are located within the


The walls of the alveoli are composed of

simple squamous epithelium.

The walls of the nasal cavity are composed of

ciliated columnar epithelium.

Microorganisms trapped in the mucus of the nasal cavity eventually end up in the


Most of the inspired air eventually ends up in the


Laryngitis is potentially dangerous condition because it may cause

obstruction of the airway.

The condition of newborns called infant respiratory distress syndrome is caused by

lack of surfactant.

Cancer that originates in the lungs is most likely to develop from

epithelial cells.

The procedure used to directly examine the trachea and bronchial tree is called


The muscular action that causes air to move into the lungs during inspiration is provided by

the diaphragm

The force responsible for normal resting expiration is supplied by

elastic recoil of the lungs.

The amount of air that enters or leaves the lungs during a respiratory cycle is the

tidal volume.

Which of the following would be most helpful for forceful expiration?

abdominal wall muscles

The additional volume of air that can be expelled from the lungs at the end of a resting expiration is called

expiratory reserve volume.

The additional volume of air that can be inhaled at the end of a resting inspiration is called

inspiratory reserve volume.

The volume of air that can be expelled from completely filled lungs is called

vital capacity.

The visceral and parietal pleural membranes are normally held together by

decreased pressure in the pleural cavity.

The condition in which outside air enters the pleural cavity is called


Emphysema is characterized by an increase in

total surface area of the respiratory membrane.

alveolar wall elasticity.

alveolar capillary networks.

Which of the following is a value that cannot be measured or calculated using a simple spirometer?

total lung capacity

The respiratory membrane consists of

two thicknesses of epithelial cells and their basement membranes.

Breathing rate is most likely to increase if the blood level of

carbon dioxide increases.

The receptors of the inflation reflex are most sensitive to


Hyperventilation causes

a decrease in plasma pCO2.

Gas exchange between the air in the alveoli and the blood in nearby capillaries occurs by the process of


The enzyme carbonic anhydrase speeds the reaction between

carbon dioxide and water.

Carbaminohemoglobin is formed when hemoglobin bonds

amino acids.

Which of the following is correct concerning the location of the kidneys?

They are located behind the parietal peritoneum.

A renal corpuscle includes the

glomerulus and glomerular capsule.

Which of the following indicates the parts of a renal tubule in the correct sequence from beginning to end?

proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb of the nephron loop, ascending limb of the nephron loop, distal convoluted tubule

Afferent arterioles are branches of the

cortical radiate arteries.

Efferent arterioles lead to the

peritubular capillaries.

Urine formation involves

glomerular filtration

tubular reabsorption

tubular secretion

If the arteriole that supplies blood to the glomerulus becomes constricted,

the glomerular filtration rate decreases.

Reabsorption of glucose occurs primarily through the walls of the

proximal convoluted tubule.

The reabsorption of sodium under the influence of aldosterone occurs primarily in the

distal convoluted tubule.

Whenever sodium ions are reabsorbed through the wall of the renal tubule by active transport, the chloride ions are

reabsorbed passively by electrical attraction.

The hormone ADH functions to promote water reabsorption through the wall of the

distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct.

The largest quantity of hydrogen ions is secreted

actively into the proximal convoluted tubule.

Glomerular filtrate is least likely to contain

plasma proteins.

If a substance is transported from the plasma of the peritubular capillary into the fluid of the renal tubule, it is said to be


If a substance is transported from the fluid of the renal tubule into the plasma of the peritubular capillary, it is said to be


During a kidney transplant procedure, the renal artery and vein of the donor kidney are connected to the recipient's

iliac artery and vein.

Gout is a condition in which the plasma has an abnormally high concentration of

uric acid

Which of the following is an abnormal constituent of urine?


uric acid



none of these

Kidney stones are least likely to be composed of


Shock-wave lithotripsy is a procedure for

. fragmenting kidney stones.

As a result of excessively low arterial blood pressure, glomerular hydrostatic pressure

drops and filtration decreases.

The ureters extend downward

behind the parietal peritoneum and join the urinary bladder from below.

The micturition reflex center is located in the

sacral portion of the spinal cord.

The effector of the micturition reflex is the

detrusor muscle.

The stretch receptors of the micturition reflex are in the

urinary bladder.

Cystitis occurs more commonly in women than in men because the

female urethral pathway is shorter.

An automatic bladder is most likely to result from injury to the

spinal cord above the sacral region.

The male and female reproductive systems

produce sex cells.

transport sex cells to sites of fertilization.

secrete hormones for developing secondary sex characteristics.

secrete hormones for maintaining secondary sex characteristics.

The cells in the testis that produce male sex hormones are called

interstitial cells.

Testicular cancer is most likely to originate from

epithelial cells of seminiferous tubules.

Undifferentiated spermatogenic cells are called


In spermatogenesis, meiosis results in the formation of

four sperm cells with 23 chromosomes each.

The head of a sperm is mostly

the nucleus.

The tightly coiled tube that leads to the ductus deferens is the


Androgens are

male sex hormones.

The hormone responsible for the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics is


Meiosis occurs during

both spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

Which of the following can be fertilized to produce a zygote?

Secondary oocyte

The movement of an egg cell down a uterine tube is aided by

both ciliary action and peristaltic contractions.

The tubular portion of the uterus that extends downward into the upper part of the vagina is the


The endometrium is the inner layer of the


A Pap smear is used to detect abnormal cells in the


The female structure that corresponds to the male penis is the


The hormone mainly responsible for the development and maintenance of female secondary sexual characteristics is


In the female reproductive cycle, menstrual flow occurs when the concentrations of

estrogen and progesterone are low.

Women athletes sometimes experience disturbances in their reproductive cycles because of

decreased synthesis of estrogens.

Mechanical barriers used in birth control include

the male condom.

the female condom.

the diaphragm.

a cervical cap.

Symptoms of sexually transmitted infections include all except

increased sex drive.