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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The inside of the cell is composed largely of a gel-like substance called
What type of microscope uses a beam of electrons instead of a beam of light to produce an image of the specimen
Electron microscopy (EM)
an electron gun produces a stream of electrons that is transmitted through the specimen and is focused by a magnetic lens (rather than an optical lens) to produce a magnified electron image of the specimen.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
a beam of electrons scans the What type of scope surface of the specimen and electrons reflected from, or knocked off of, the surface are detected by a special sensor
In scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
What important concept in biology was proposed by Schleiden and Schwann?
The cell theory
Give an example of how cell structure relates to its function.
Muscle cells are specialized to contract or shorten.
What is the area of the cytoplasm near the nucleus that coordinates the building and breaking up of microtubules in the cell
one of a pair of tiny cylinders in the centrosome of a cell; believed to be involved with the spindle fibers formed during mitosis
threadlike genetic material in the nucleus
barlike bodies of chromatin (DNA) that have coiled to form a compact mass during mitosis or meiosis
Hairlike projections of cells
What is an composite Cell
An artistic representation of a cell that includes features from many different types of cells
What are cristae (KRIS-tee)
Folds of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion.
What is cytoskeleton
The cell's internal supporting framework
What are desmosomes

specialized junctions that hold adjacent cells together; consist of dense plate at point of adhesion plus extracellular cementing material
What is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

(en-doh-PLAS-mik reh-TIK-yoo-lum)
network of tubules and vesicles in cytoplasm that contributes to cellular protein manufacture (via attached ribosomes) and distribution
What are flagellum

single projection extending from the cell surface; only example in human is the “tail” of the male sperm
What is a fluid mosaic model

theory of plasma membrane composition in which molecules of the membrane are bound tightly enough to form a continuous layer but loosely enough so molecules can slip past one another
What is a gap junction
cell connection formed when membrane channels of adjacent plasma membranes adhere to each other
Golgi apparatus

(GOL-jee ap-ah-RAH-tus)
organelle consisting of small sacs stacked on 1 another near the nucleus that makes carbohydrate compounds, combines them w/ protein molecules, & packages the product 4 distribution from the cell
What does hydrophilic mean?

What does hydrophobic mean?

What is an intermediate filament

(in-ter-MEE-dee-it FIL-ah-ment)
twisted strands of protein, slightly larger than microfilaments that make up part of the cell's internal skeleton (the cytoskeleton)
What is a light microscope

A magnifying device made of glass lenses that use light transmitted through or reflected from a specimen.
What is a lysosome

membranous organelle containing various enzymes that can dissolve most cellular compounds; called digestive bags or suicide bags of cell
What is a microfilament

smallest cell fibers; “cellular muscles”
What is a microtubule

A thick cell fiber (compared to microfilament); hollow tube responsible for movement of substances within the cell or movement of the cell itself
What is a microvillus

A brushlike border made up of epithelial cells on each villus in the small intestine; increases the surface area for absorption of nutrients
What is a mitochondrion

An organelle in which ATP generation occurs; often termed “powerhouse of cell”
What is a nucleolus

A dense, well-defined but membraneless body within the nucleus; critical to protein formation because it “programs” the formation of ribosomes in the nucleus
What is a nucleus

A membranous organelle that contains most of the genetic material of the cell; also, group of neuron cell bodies in the brain or spinal cord
What is an organelle

Any of many cell “organs” or organized structures; for example, a ribosome or mitochondrion
What is a peroxisome

An organelles that detoxify harmful substances that have entered cells
What is a plasma membrane

membrane that separates the contents of a cell from the tissue fluid, encloses the cytoplasm, and forms the outer boundary of the cell
What is a raft
also called lipid raft, it is a structure made up of groupings of molecules (cholesterol, certain phospholipids, proteins) within a cell membrane that travel together on the surface of the cell, something like a log raft on a lake
What is receptor

portion of a sensory neuron that responds to an external stimulus; also, any molecule on the surface of a cell that binds specifically to other molecules (such as cell markers, hormones, neurotransmitters)
What is a ribosome

organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that synthesizes proteins; sometimes called “protein factory”
What is a signal transduction

(SIG-nal tranz-DUK-shun)
process of changing a signal such as a hormone or neurotransmitter into another form such as enzymatic reaction within the cell receiving the signal
signal transduction

(thus the extracellular hormone signal is transduced, or changed, to an intracellular enzymatic signal)
What is a tight junction
A connection between cells in which they are joined by “collars” of tightly fused membrane
What is a vesicle?

Any tiny membranous bubble within a cell; clinical term referring to blisters, fluid-filled skin lesions
The smallest particle of a chemical that retains the properties of that element. Can be subdivided into smaller subatomic particles.
Atom continued
Some exist in a cloud which surrounds a dense central core, nucleus. the subatomic particles are protons, nuetrons, electrons.
compounds contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in certain specific proportions. called sugars or starches.
What are the 3 types of carbohydrates
Monosaccharides, di and poly saccharides, mono are simple sugars, glucose. di & poly 2 or more simple sugars that r bonded togther through a synthesis
Carrier protein
Membrane protein that act as channels or carriers of molecules. Controlled transport of water-soluble molecules from one compartment to another
cell marker
protein molecules embedded in plasma membrane perform various functions; for ex they serve as markers that identify cells of each individual, as receptor molecules for certain hormones and other molecules, and as transport mechanisms
channel protein
i dont know
steroid lipid in many body tissues, various steroid hormones
A watery fluid made inside cytoplasm
Fluids that speed the breakdown.Enzyme molecules that catalyze specific chemical reactions
integral protein
Hold cells in place in tissue in of the cell to the outside
formed when 2 or more atoms join
Nuclear membrane
Organ system
system level of organization can perform complex functons
organization of several different kinds of tissues to perform a special. represent discrete & functionally complex operational units. has a unique size shape appearance & placement in the body
Peripheral protein
proteins outside of the cell
Phospholipid, nonpolar tail - polar-head
primary structure of a cell membrane is a double layer of phospholipid molecules. have “heads” that are water soluble and double “tails” that are lipid soluble
receptor protein
that can react to the presence of hormones or other regulatory chemicals and thereby trigger metabolic changes in the cell
rough ER
Ribosomes attached to rough ER synthesize proteins that leave cells via the Golgi apparatus;
Smooth ER
smooth ER synthesizes lipids incorporated in cell membranes, steroid hormones, and certain carbohydrates used to form glycoproteins—also removes and stores Ca++ from the cell's interior
How does cell structure relate to its function.
cells exhibit a particular size or form because they are intended to perform a specialized activity.Muscle cells are specialized to contract or shorten
List the main structural components of a typical cell
Plasma membrane-separate cell from its surrounding environment. Cytoplasm thick like gel composed of numerous organelle. Nucleus - large membranous structure near the center of the cell
List the functions of the plasma membrane
Serves as boundary of the cell, maintains its integrity; protein molecules embedded in plsma membrane prform various functions; ex they serve as markers, as receptor molecules for certain hormones & othr molecules, and as transport mechanisms
identify the organelles by name
Endoplasmic reticulum, Ribosomes, Golgi aparatus, lysosomes, proteasomes, peroxisomes, mitochondra,
give 1 function of each of the organelles

2 answer cards
rough ER ribosomes synthesize proteins, Smooth ER synthesizes lipids and carbs, Ribosomes make proteins for the cell's domestic use.
give 1 function of each of the organelles` cont.
Processes protein molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum, Lysosomes The cells own digestive system. Proteasomes, break down abnormal/misfolded proteins & normal proteins no lngr ndd
give 1 function of each of the organelles
peroxisomes, detoxifies harmful substances that enter the cells. Mitochrondria, enzymes catalyze seris of oxidation reactions, tht provide 95/5 of cells energy supply
Distinguish between membranous and non-membranous organelle
Membranous - ER,Golgi apparatus, Lysosomes,Peroxisomes, Mitochondria ?
Non membranous- Ribosomes,Proteasomes?,
Describe the 3 types of fibers in the cytoskeleton

2 answer cards
The smallest cell fibers are microfilaments & often serve as “cellular muscles.” They are made of thin, twisted strands of protein molecules and usually form bundles that lie parallel to the long axis of a cell.
intermediate filaments r twisted protein strands that are slightly thicker than microfilaments. Intermediate filaments are thought to form much of the supporting framework in many types of cells.
fibers in the cytoskeleton
The thickest fibers r tiny, hollow tubes calld microtubules & r made of protein subunits arranged in a spiral fashion.r sometimes called the “engines” of the cell because they often move things around in the cell—or even cause movement of the entire cell.
Describe the function of the centrosome
is a region of the cytoplasm near the nucleus that coordinates the building and breaking of microtubules in the cell.
Describe each of the typical types of cell junctions.
answer card
Anatomy and Physiology
Chapter 4: Physiology of Cells
Anatomy and Physiology
Chapter 4: Physiology of Cells
Anatomy and Physiology
Chapter 4: Physiology of Cells
Anatomy and Physiology
Chapter 4: Physiology of Cells
Active transport