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20 Cards in this Set

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Duodenum

Smallest portion of the Small Intestine, addition of digestive juices, follows a C-shaped path.

Jejunum

Majority of the Small Intestine, site of absorption and digestion.

Ileum

Last part of small intestine, attaches to the cecum in the large intestine, rate of digestion varys with foos

Pancreas

Makes insulin to maintain homeostaaia of bloos glucose, secretes sodium bicarbonate, secreted digestive enzymes,

Liver

Produces digestive fluid called bile, stimulated by the pancreas to convert glucose into glycogen, destroys dead bloos cells, destroys blood toxins like alcohol, divided into several lobes.

Gall Bladder

Stores bile between meals, pear-shaped sac on inside of the liver, capacity of 30-50 militers, lined with columnar epithelial cells, concentrates bile by absorbing water, contracts to release bile into the small intestine.

Bile

Yellow-greenish liquid that is secreted from hepatic cells, contains bile salts, pigments, cholesterol, electrolytes.

Gastric Inhibitory Protein (GIP)

Stimulated when food enters the duodenum, it blocks gastric secretions and motility, stimulates insulin production

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

Secreted in the presence of lipids or protein in the duodenum, initiates release of sodium bicarbonate.

Cecum

Recieves chyme from the ileum, the appendix attaches to the base of the cecum, it is located at the beginning of the large intestine, it cultures beneficial bacteria for the large intestine.

Colon

Divided into four parts, largest part of the large intestine, contains pockets called 'Haustra', as the chyme moves throughout it dries out and forms feces, contains bacteria colonies that free vitamins for absorption.

Appendix

Its an accessory organ that secretes immune and digestive fluids into the cecum

Rectum

Attached to the sacrum and the anus, stores feces between movements, has 2 sphincter (internal and external)

Trypsin

Protein splitting enzyme, secreted by the pancreas, activates chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase.

Kupffer Cells

Remove most of the bacteria from the blood by the process of phagocytosis, located in the liver

Vili

Greatly increase the surface area of the intestinal lining, aiding in absorption of digestive products. Each one consists of a layer of simple columnar epithelium and a core of connective tissue containing blood capillaries, lymphatic capillaries, and nerve fibers.

Secretin

it is a peptide hormone that stimulates the pancreas to secrete abundant fluid when acidic chyme enters the duodenum. Its released into the blood from the duodenal mucous membrane in response to the acid in chyme.

Jaundice

Yellowish skin, may result from excess deposition of bile pigments, may be caused by blockages of the bile ducts, or by having gallstones or tumors.

Diarrhea

If the small intestine wall becomes overdistened or irritated, a strong peristalic rush may pass along the organ's entire length. This movement sweeps the contents into the large intestine so quickly that the water, nutrients, and electrolytes that would be absorbed are not, and the result is this.

Haustra

Pouches in the wall of the large intestine