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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


exchange of gas between an organism and its environment

principles of respiration- air pressure

-air pressure is the force exerted on the walls of a chamber by molecules of air

-air pressure needs to be equal inside and outside the lungs; air flows in and out to equalize

Boyle's Law

as the volume of a container increases, air pressure within decreases and vice versa; volume and pressure inverse

structures of respiration

-bony thorax (bones)

-visceral thorax (organs)

-muscles of respiration

bony thorax


visceral thorax



7 true (1-7), 3 false (8-10), 2 floating (11-12)

cartilage that attaches to ribs

costal/chondral cartilage


breastbone; manubrium, body, and xiphoid process


top of sternum

xiphoid process

part inferior to sternum, ossifies

vertebral column

33 segments of bone (vertebrae; 7 (C1-7) cervical, 12 (T1-12) thoracic, 5 (1-5L) lumbar, sacrum (5 fused), coccyx


flat part behind vertebrae, angle to meet

spinous process

straight part behind vertebrae


part of vertebrae where they sit

superior articular facet

where posterior tubercle and lamina connect

vertebral foramen

hole where the spinal cord goes through


atlus- supports hear


axis- turns head on axis

transverse foramen

holes where spinal nerves go through

rib cage

part of bony thorax, 12 ribs, sternum serves as focal point; slope downward during rest, elevate during inspiration

pelvic girdle

part of bony thorax; includes ilium, sacrum, pubic bone, and ischium


largest bone of pelvis/hip


lower and back part of hip bone

pectoral girdle

includes scapula and clavicle bones; support upper extremities and attach to sternum

respiratory passageway

part of visceral thorax, connects lungs with the external environment; oral/nasal cavities, larynx and trachea, bronchial tree and tubes

bronchial tree

characterized by branching of larger tubes into smaller tubes, go from trachea to lungs


visceral thorax; composed of vascular, elastic tissue, blood (arterial and venous network), connective tissue, respiratory pathway, and alveoli

lung lobes

right = 3, left = 2

bronchi names

mainstem, secondary, tertiary, bronchiole

respiratory passageway covered in

cargilaginous rings, don't go all the way around

respiratory passageqay jobs

protects lungs against pollutants (beating epithelia that line, coughing expells; lymphatic system too), warms/humidifies air


sites of gas exchange, grouped in sacs, surrounded by capillaries; over 300 million


cilia reduced, reduced cleaning, less gas exchange

muscles of respiration

biggest/primary = diaphragm

pleural linings

cover diaphragm and lungs, basis for air movement; pleura are in contact, contraction of diaphragm pulls lungs down; how lungs never collapse


separates thorax from abdomen, fibers pull on central tendon; pulled down during inspiration, up during expiration; umbrella shape at rest

muscles between ribs

internal and external intercostal muscles

accessory muscles of inspiration- anterior thoracic muscles of inspiration

-external intercostal muscles

-interchondral portion, internal intercostal muscles

accessory muscles of inspiration- posterior thoracic muscles of inspiration

-levatores costarum (brexis and longis)

-serratus posterior superior

accessory muscles of the neck

important for inspiration, source of stability, control flexion and extension

-sternomastoid muscle

-scalenes muscles

muscles of forced expiration

thorasic muscles- anterior/posterior

abdominal muscles- anterolateral abdominal, posterior abdominal

process of forced expiration

-contraction of the abdominal muscles

-squeezing of the abdomen

-compression of the viscera

-reduction of the size of the thorax

-air is pushed out of the lungs