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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Atlanto-occipital Joint

-Synovial (condylar), diarthrosis

-Extension, flexion of head, slight lateral flexion

Atlanto-axial Joints

-Synovial (pivot), diarthrosis

-Right and left rotation of head

2 types of Intervertebral Joints

-Between vertebral bodies of adjacent vertebrae

-Intervertebral facet joints

Between vertebral bodies of adjacent vertebrae

Cartilaginous (symphysis), amphiarthrosis

-extension, flexion, lateral flexion of vertebral column

Intervertebral Discs

Anulus fibrosus= tough outer

-fibrocartilage, collagen fibers attach to bodies of vertebrae

Nucleus pulposus= soft inner

-75% water, some elastic fibers, shock absorber

-decreases with age

Intervertebral Facet Joints

-between superior/inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae

Synovial (plane), diarthrosis

-flexion, extension, lateral flexion, slight rotation of vertebral column

Which ligaments limit the relative mobility of the sternal end of the clavicle?

Anterior + posterior sternoclavicular joints, costoclavicular ligament, interclavicular ligament

Which limit motion at the acromial end?

Acromioclavicular ligament, coracoclavicular ligament (trapezoid and conoid), coracoacromial ligament/ coracohumeral ligament

Joints of the Shoulder Region

-Acromioclavicular Joint

-Glenohumeral Joint

-Sternoclavicular Joint

Sternoclavicular Joint

-Synovial (saddle) joint, diarthrosis

-elevation, depression and circumduction

-Articular disc

Sternoclavicular Joint Separation Rehabilitation Exercises

-Scapular squeeze

- Prone shoulder extension

- Supine shoulder flexion

-Horizontal abduction

-supine chest fly

Acromioclavicular Joint

-Synovial (plane), diarthrosis

- gliding of scapula on clavicle

-Note-articular disc

Clinical View: Shoulder Separation

Grade 2: Acromioclavicular ligament torn

Grade 3: Coracoclavicular ligaments torn

Glenohumeral Joint

-Synovial (ball and socket), diarthrosis

-Movements of the arm

--Abduction, adduction

--flexion, extension


--lateral and medial rotation

Movement of clavicle, scapula when humerus is extended and flexed

-humerus extended- pectoral girdle retracted

- humerus flexed-pectoral girdle protracted

Musculotendinous (rotator) cuff:

-encircles shoulder joint+ blends with capsule

- "SITS" muscles (Subscapularis, Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor)

Other muscles stabilizing joint: tendons of

-long head biceps brachii m. (supraglenoid tubercle)

-long head triceps brachii m. (infraglenoid tubercle)

Clinical View: Dislocation-most common anteriorly

-often tears inferior capsule + glenoid labrum

-pain receptors in

--capsule, tendons, and ligaments

-results in unstable joint

Elbow Joint: Humeroulnar Joint

-Synovial (hinge), diarthrosis

-Allows flexion and extension of elbow

Elbow Joint: Humeroradial Joint

-Synovial (hinge), diarthrosis

-Allows flexion and extension of elbow

Elbow Joint: Radioulnar Joint

-synoival (pivot), diarthrosis

-rotation of radius (supination/pronation of forearm)

Stability of Elbow Joint

-Articular capsule is thick

-Bony surfaces interlock

-Strong ligaments reinforce

Radiocarpal (wrist) joint

-synovial (condylar), diarthrosis

-flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction

-Articular disc

Note: carpal bones do not join directly to ulna

Ulnar/medial collateral ligament

Medial epicondyle humerus to coronoid process and olecranon of ulna

Radial/lateral collateral ligament

lateral epicondyle humerus to anular ligament

Anular ligament

margins of radial notch on ulna

Hip Joint/Coxal Joint

-More stable/less mobile than shoulder joint

-Reinforced by: strong articular capsule ligaments and powerful muscles

-Synovial jt (ball and socket) diarthrosis

-Fibrocartilaginous acetabular labrum deepens socket

-flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial (internal)/lateral (external) rotation, circumduction

Ligaments of the Hip Joint

-Iliofemoral Ligament

-Ischiofemoral Ligament

-Pubofemoral ligament

Clinical View: "Hip" Fractures

Fractures may

-tear blood vessels

-lead to avascular necrosis

Knee Joints

-Main= synovial (hinge joint), diarthrosis

-Complex: menisci and many ligaments

-Mostly flexion/extension

-Some rotation and lateral gliding when knee is flexed

Two Joints:

-Femorotibial joints

-Femoropatellar joint

Two Menisci

-C-shaped fibrocartilage pads

-Cushion and stabilize joint and medially and laterally

-Conform with articulating surfaces

7 supporting ligaments

-Patellar Ligament

-2 collateral ligaments

- 2 popliteal ligaments

- 2 cruciate ligaments

Unhappy Triad

Lateral blow to the knee

-torn anterior cruciate ligament

-torn tibial collateral ligament

-torn medial meniscus

Ankle Joint/Talocrural Joint

-Highly modified hinge joint

- dorsiflexion/plantarflexion

-2 articulations:

--distal tibia and talus

--distal fibula and lateral talus

- ligaments include: deltoid ligament, lateral ligament, anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments.

Clinical View: Ankle Injuries

-95-99% sprains= inversion stress

- Later ligament= "sprain lig"

RICE= rest, ice, compression and elevation

What is the function of the ligament of the head of the femur (ligaments trees)?

-blood supply to the head of the femur

- path for acetabular branch of obturator a. to head of femur

Ligaments associated with the hip joint

-Iliofemoral ligament

-ischiofemoral ligament

-pubofemoral ligament

-ligament of head of femur

- transverse acetabular ligament

Which ligament helps to maintain the alignment of the condyles between the femur and tibia and limits anterior movement of the tibia on the femur?

Anterior cruciate ligament

Suprapatellar Bursae

above the knee, beneath quadriceps Deloris tendon

Prepatellar Bursae

two-one beneath skin (subcutaneous) and one deep to tendon of quadriceps femurs (subtendinous) in front of knee

Infrapatellar Bursae

below the knee- one deep and one below the skin (between the skin and tibial tub. (subcutaneous) deep between patellar ligament and tibia)

Anserine Bursae

Deep to tendons of 3 muscles- sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus mm.

Gastronemius Bursae

deep to medial and lateral heads of gastro. m.