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52 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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6 types of epithelial tissue
simple squamous epithelium
simple cuboidal epithelium
simple columnar epithelium
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
transitional epithelium
stratified squamous epithelium
fried eggs, flat
cubes, string of beads
tall, soldiers in a row
single layer of differing heights
multiple layers, when relaxed - cuboidal; when stretched squamous
multiple layers
5 kinds of connective tissue
dense irregular
dense regular
matrix, elastic fibers seem somewhat regular
nuclei pushed to edge by fat droplet
lots of short reticular fibers
fibers in multiple directions
wavy parallel lines
Three types of fibers found in connective tissue
elastic fibers
collagen fibers
reticular fibers
long thin branching networks
cross-linked fibrils bundled together (show up as thicker more faint fibers)
short and fine, extensive branching
Three types of cartilage
Hyaline cartilage
elastic cartilage
eyes in very smooth matrix
eyes connected by elastic fibers
eyes in thick scars
Parts of bone
central canals
one tree trunk
dark center
rings of calcified matrix
the dashes making up the rings
thin lines connecting the osteocytes
Make up of "eyes" in cartilage
chondrocytes found in lacunae
Three types of muscle
parallel lines with bands
striated but branching
wavy elongated cells
things found in muscle tissue
striations (skeletal & cardiac)
intercalated discs (cardiac)
layers of the epidermis
stratum corneum
stratum lucidum
stratum granulosum
stratum spinosum
stratum basale
20-30 layers of dead cells
light - thin translucent band - only thick skin
thin (3 to 5 layers) of flattened cells filled with granules
prickly thicker layer of cells (lots of nuclei visible
bottom layer - single row of stem cells
Two regions of the dermis
top 1/5 - contains dermal papillae
bottom 4/5
three types of glands found in the dermis
eccrine sweat gland
apocrine sweat gland
sebaceous gland
small - coiled mass
nut cluster
2 elements of nervous system in dermis
Meissner's corpuscle
Pacinian corpuscle
balloons under dermal papillae
coil - found in hypodermis in model
elements related to hair in the dermis (6)
hair follicle
hair bulb
hair papilla
hair root
hair shaft
arrector pili muscle
sac from which the hair grows
expanded bottom of hair in follicle
indentation of hair bulb containing blood vessels and nerve
hair below surface of epidermis
hair above surface of epidermis
connects hair follicle to the epidermis
Three layers of skin
hypodermis (subcutaneous layer)
4 Skull sutures with location
1) Coronal - between frontal and parietal
2) sagittal - where parietal bones meet (seen only from back)
3) Squamosal - between parietal and temporal
4) Lambdoidal - between parietal and occipital
names and descriptions of projections that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment (8)
(Bone markings)
1) Crest - narrow ridge of bone, usually prominent (iliac crest)
2) Line - narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than a crest (intertrochanteric line)
3) Epicondyle - raised area on or above a condyle (medial epicondyle)
4) Process - Any bony prominence (transverse process)
5) Spine - Sharp, slender, often pointed projection (ischial spine)
6) Tuberosity - Large rounded projection, may be roughened (ischial tuberosity)
7) Trochanter - very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process (only on femur)
8) Tubercle - small rounded projection or process (Adductor tubercle)
names and descriptions of projections that help form joints (4)
(Bone markings)
1) head - bony expansion carried on a narrow neck (on rib)
2) facet - smooth, nearly flat articular surface (on rib)
3) condyle - rounded articular projection (on mandible)
4) Ramus - armlike bar of bone (on mandible)
names and descriptions of depressions and openings
(bone markings)
1) Groove - furrow (on mandible)
2) Fissure - narrow, slitlike opening (inferior orbital fissure)
3) Foramen - round or oval opening through a bone
4) notch - indentation at the edge of a structure (on mandible)
5) Meatus - canal-like passageway
6) Sinus - cavity within a bone filled with air and lined with mucous membrane
7) Fossa - shallow, basinlike depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface
8 cranial bones
1) Frontal - forehead
2) parietal (2) - top of head
3) occipital - back of head
4) temporal (2) - sides of head
5) sphenoid - (central wedge)
6) ethmoid - (in front of sephenoid)
3 things to know in occipital
1) foramen magnum - large hole for spinal cord
2) occipital condyle - raised part on either side of foramen magnum (small end of bone) - where C1 sits
3) hypoglossal canal - right above the foramen magnum
7 things to know in temporal
1) zygomatic process - from ear to cheekbone
2) mastoid process - bone behind ear
3) styloid process - pointy thing below the ear
4) external auditory (acoustic) meatus - hole for ear
5) internal acoustic meatus - seen on inside
6) carotid canal - on anterior side of ridge of bone (as seen from inside of skull)
7) jugular foramen - posterior to carotid canal (external); larger hole and posterior to internal acoustic meatus (interior)
8 things to know on the sphenoid
(all descriptions seen while seated in saddle)
1) greater wings - angel wings - extend the furthest to L and R
2) lesser wings - between greater wings and closer to saddle
3) sella turica - seen in middle when looking down into transverse plane of skull
4) optic canal - top holes under lesser wings
5) superior orbital fissure - holes just below optic canal between greater and lesser wings
6) foramen rotundum - below superior orbital fissure
7) foramen ovale - between rotundum and spinosum
8) foramen spinosum - small holes on far bottom ends of greater wings.
5 things to know about ethmoid
(superior view - like ship; inferior view - like walnut)
1) crista galli - sticks up in the middle - prow of ship
2) cribriform plate - flat deck of ship on either side of crista galli
3) olfactory foramina - tiny holes in cribriform plate
4) perpendicular plate - below crista galli in middle; middle of walnut
5) middle nasal conchae - coiled on either side of perpendicular plate
8 facial bones
1) nasal - bridge of nose
2) maxilla - upper jaw, and up over nose - main bone of face
3) lacrimal (2)- nasal side of orbit
4) vomer - perpendicular - at bottom of nasal cavity
5) inferior nasal conchae (2)- below nasal cavity
6) palatine - U shaped bone - bottom of the U is the back of roof of mouth
7) mandible - lower jaw
8) zygomatic (2) - check bone
Holes seen in interior of skull
From anterior to posterior
1) optic canal - close to center
2) orbital fissure - out wider
3) foramen rotundum - below/round
4) foramen oval - lateral to rotundum
5) foramen spinosum - small
6) internal acoustic meatus - posterior side of ridge
7) jugular foramen - biggest
8) hypoglossa canal - part way down foramen magnum
9) foramen magnum
Facial bones (14)
1) nasal (2) - bridge of nose
2) Lacrimal (2) - nasal side of orbit
3) maxilla (2) - upper jaw and up over nose, main bone of face
a) palatine process - roof of mouth (part of maxilla)
4) vomer - bottom of nose
5) inferior nasal conchae (2)- inside bottom of nasal cavity
6) palatine - U shaped bone bottom is back of mouth
a) horizontal plate - back of roof of mouth
7) mandible - lower jaw
8) Zygomatic (2) - cheek bone
a) temporal process - connects to zygomatic process of temporal bone
Paranasal sinuses
frontal - above eyebrows
ethmoid - between eyes and behind - above maxillary sinus
maxillary - either side of nose (cheeks)
sphenoid - posterior to the ethmoid
Things to know as part of mandible (6)
1) body - bottom from chin to angel
2) angle - where it turns up
3) ramus - goes up
4) mandibular condyle - where it connects to maxilla in front of ear
5) coronoid process - anterior to mandibular condyle
6) mental foramen - hole on either side of chin - below teeth roots
Only bone that doesn't articulate directly with another bone
hyoid bone - u shaped
3 types of ribs
1) true ribs - (1-7) attach to vertebra and sternum
2) false ribs - (8-12) attach indirectly to the sternum
3) floating ribs - (11&12) no anterior attachment
Things to know on ribs (6)
1) head - attaches to vertebrae
2) neck - thinner part between head and tubercle
3) Tubercle - rounded projection that fits with vertebra
4) costal groove - inside of curve on bottom
5) shaft - main part of bone
6) costal cartilage - in front that connects to sternum
parts of sternum
1) manubrium - knot of tie
2) body - main part of tie
3) xiphoid process - inferior, sword shaped
fontanels on a fetal skull (6)
1) anterior fontanel - top center
2) posterior fontanel - back center
3) sphenoidal fontanel (2) - at temples
4) mastoid fontanel (2) - behind ears
parts of a vertebra
1) body - solid, weight bearing part
2) vertebral foramen - where spinal cord passes
3) vertebral arch - arc around the vertebral foramen opposite the body
4) spinous process - part sticking out the back
5) transverse process (2) - part sticking out on either side
6) lamina - between spinous process and transverse process (part of arch)
7) pedicle - between transverse process and body (part of arch)
8) superior articular process & facet- between spinous process and transverse process; flat part on superior articular process - articulation between vertebrae
9) inferior articular process & facet - flat part on anterior side - fits against the superior articular process/facet of lower vertebra
Two types of cervical vertebrae
1) atlas (c1) - top vertebra - no body; shape like spaceship
- transverse foramen - hole between transverse process and superior articular facet
2) axis (c2) - has small body; heart shape
- dens (odontoid) process - head that sticks up on superior side of body
- transverse foramen - holes seen on inferior side between transverse process and body
5 types of vertebrae (from top to bottom, with #s and identifying marks
1) cervical - (C1-C7) - body as part of arch
2) Thoracic - (T1-T12) - body is bigger
3) Lumbar - (L1-L5) - thickest, biggest body
4) Sacral (S1-S5) - fused together to form the sacrum - have holes on either side
5) Coccygeal (Co1-Co4) - 4 fused together to form coccyx - looks like a
Two girdles in appendicular skeleton
1) Pectoral girdle - 2 clavicles 2 scapulae
2) Pelvic girdle - 2 coxal bones
2 ends on the clavicle
1) sternal end - rounder
2) acromial end - flatter - sits on top of the caracoid process
Note - rougher flat surface of shaft is inferior
9 things to know on the scapula
1) superior border - closet to neck/head
2) medial border - closest to spine
3) lateral border - closest to arm
4) glenoid cavity - where joint attaches (seen on anterior view
5) spine - bony protrusion on posterior side - points in the direction of R or L which indicates if it's the R or L scapula
6) acromion - extension of spine
7) coracoid process - above glenoid cavity
8) supraspinous fossa - above spine (posterior)
9) infraspinous fossa - below spine (posterior)
6 things to know on the proximal end of the humerus
1) head - definite ball on medial side
2) anatomical neck (crease between head and tubercles
3) greater tubercle - biggest and sticks up the highest
4) less tubercle - smaller
5) surgical neck - on shaft just below head
6) deltoid tuberosity - on tubercle side of bone - a protrusion (in middle of shaft)
7 things to know on distal end of humerus
1) medial epicondyle - sticks out the farthest
2) trochlea - medial side - can't be felt from outside
3) capitulum - lateral side - can't be felt from outside
4)lateral epicondyle - lateral bone on elbow
5) radial fossa - on lateral side, anterior view
6) coronoid fossa - deeper and on medial side - anterior view
7) olecranon fossa - indentation in the middle
Bones of the arm and hands
1) Humerus - bicep
2) Ulna - medial side; forms elbow
3) radius - lateral side
4) carpals - 8 bones of wrist
5) metacarpals - palm (thumb = 1; pinky = 5)
6) phalanges - fingers (proximal, middle, distal)
6 things to know on the Ulna
1) olecranon process - fits into olecranon fossa - actual elbow
2) Trochlear notch - rounded part of proximal end (half moon would fit in it)
3) coronoid process - inferior part of notch
4) Radial notch - depression next to coronoid process - can be seen when Trochlear notch makes a C
5) head - distal end
6) Styloid process - sticks down on lateral side - distal end
4 things to know on the radius
1) head - by elbow
2) radial tuberosity - below neck
3) ulnar notch - distal end - against ulna
4) styloid process - distal end, sticks down by wrist.
1) scaphoid - connects with radius - thumb side
2) lunate - connects with ulna - pinky side
Bones in the legs and feet
1) femur
2) patella
3) Tibia - medial, larger
4) Fibula - lateral, smaller
5) tarsals - ankle
6) metatarsals - foot (numbered like hand bones
7) phalanges - toes (proximal, middle, distal)
5 things to know on proximal femur
1) head - distinct ball - on medial side
2) neck - area between head and trochanters
3) greater trochanter - lateral
4) lesser trochanter - medial
5) linea aspera - long vertical ridge on middle of shaft on posterior side
5 things to know on distal femur
1) lateral epicondyle - protrusion behind joint same side as greater trochanter
2) medial epicondyle - protrusion behind joint same side as head
3) lateral condyle - joint
4) medial condyle - joint - head side
5) intercondylar fossa - between the 2 condyles
4 things to know on Tibia
1) medial condyle - outermost part of "head"
2) lateral condyle - side where fibula attaches
3) tibial tuberosity - bony part at top of shin
4) medial malleolus - distal end -part that sticks down forming projection on inside of ankle
2 things to know on the fibula
1) head - proximal end
2) lateral malleolus - point end on distal end
2 tarsals to know
1) calcaneus - largest, heel
2) talus - top of ankle
8 structures in knee joint
1) lateral (fibular) collateral ligament - back of quad and round side to attach to fibula - outside of knee
2) medial (tibial) collateral ligament - like above but inside
3) anterior cruciate ligament - front of x in middle of knee from femur to tibia
4) posterior cruciate ligament - back of x in middle of knee
5) medial meniscus - inside of knee, top of tibia
6) lateral meniscus - top of tibia - on outside
7) patellar ligament - between patella and tibia
8) quadriceps tendon - holds patella in place