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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are the major components of blood plasma?

Water – 91%

Proteins – 7%

All other solutes – 2%

Antibodies on each blood type:









Antigens on each blood type









structure of RBC

- Biconcave discs

- Contractile proteins – help a red blood cell contract

- No nucleus – anucleaus

What are the differences between the pulmonary and systemic blood circuits?

Pulmonary - carries blood to the lungs, from the heart is deoxygenated

Systemic - goes to the body

Five WBC and functions -

1. Neutrophil - phagocytize bacteria

2. Eosinophil - they digest parasitic worms

3. Basophil -histamine and heparin which are important in inflammatory process;

4. Monocytes - phagocytize everything

5. Lymphocytes - produce T and B cells

• If NFP is positive,

if NFP is _negative,

- fluid is driven out of the capillary

• fluid is drawn back into the capillary

Green dots -
top green line -
red line -
blue line -

Green dots -

top green line -

red line -

blue line -

Baroreceptors/ chemoreceptors

- sensory receptors

vagus nerve

cardiac nerves

What effect does aldosterone have on blood pressure?

lowers blood pressure by water and sodium reabsoprtion

What are the name and the basic characteristics of the heart's pacemaker?

a. Sinoatrial (SA) node

70-80 bpm

How does blood move within veins toward the heart?

blood is drained into cardiac veins, which join to form the coronary sinus, this leads to the right atrium

Short-term BP controls work more on _________ while long-term BP controls work on __________.

- peripheral resistance

- blood volume

What is the vasomotor center and how does it work?

– cluster of Sympathetic neurons in medulla oblongata

- • vasomotor nerve fibers innervate smooth muscle of small arteries and arterioles• these fibers release Norepinephrine, which cause vasoconstriction => rising BP

What happens to blood flow with temperature change, anemia and polycythemia?

Higher temperature - higher blood flow

anemia - low blood flow

polycythemia - low blood flow

What structure filters blood to remove pathogens and also breaks down dead/damaged RBC’s?


What are the major functions of dendritic cells, reticular cells, lymphocytes and macrophages in the lymphatic system?

dendritic - foreign antigen recognition

Reticular - supports other cell types.

Lymphocytes - make B and T cells - immune resp

Macrophages - ; surveillance for foreign cells

What is the correct sequence of structures in the flow of lymph from smallest to largest?

Lymphatic capillaries, vessels, nodes, trunks, ducts.

How does lymph enter and remain in lymph vessels?

Enter in lymph vessels and only flow in one direction

What is the equation for cellular respiration that explains the importance of the respiratory system?

C6H12O6+ 6 O2 <-->6 CO2+ 6H2O + 36ATP’s

What pressure change occurs in our chest to cause inhalation?

• Pressure in the intrapleural space and lungs drops by 1 cm H2O;pressure inside the lungs becomes negative compared to outside (atmospheric) air

Under what conditions would O2 normally be bonded tightly to Hemoglobin so it will NOT move into body cells?

decreasing temperature

decreasing H+ in blood (higher pH)

decreasing Pco2

decreaseing BPG in blood

What is the “respiratory membrane” where gas exchange occurs


What are the meanings of deglutition, mastication, peristalsis and segmentation?



rhythmic contraction of food in the GI tract

mixing of food backwards and forwards in small intestine

What nervous systems control digestion

enteric and autonomic

Reactions that occur as nutrients are chemically digested are essentially _______ reactions.


How do the products of digestion: lipids, amino acids and monosaccharides, enter capillaries?

amino and mono - by facilitated diffusion

lipids - simple diffusion, then out by exocytosis

What ions are involved with each phase of cardiac muscle contraction?

Depolarization - voltage Na open, voltage K close, and voltage Ca start to open

Platuea - voltage Na close, some voltage K open, Ca still open

Repolarization - More voltage K open, Ca close

what are their functions: sarcolemma, SR, T tubule, mitochondria and nucleus.

- muscle contraction

- SR - stores calcium

- even contractions by allowing action potential

- makes ATP

- stores DNA

What is the role of calcium in excitation-contraction coupling in a cardiac muscle cell?

Ca+ binding to troponin, causing exposure of binding sites on actin, cross bridge pulling of myofilaments (power stroke), and contraction

Nervous stimulation causes the contraction of the appropriate muscles, which causes the size of the chest cavity to ____, and the lungs then change in size the same way. This size change causes the pressure in the lungs to _____, so the pressure inside the lungs becomes ________ with respect to outside air. This pressure difference causes air to rush in and fill the lungs, thus causing inhalation. Exhalation occurs when the nerve stimulus to the relevant muscles stops, thus allowing these muscles to relax. The chest cavity returns to its normal size, and therefore the pressure in the lungs _____; it becomes ______ with respect to outside air. This allows air to rush out of the lungs - you exhale.






Name the two MOST IMPORTANT types of phagocytic cells that participate in the body’s immune responses.



. List five examples of nonspecific barriers in the 1st line of immune defense

1. Intact skin and mucous membranes

2. Secretions from glands in the skin

3. Saliva and tears

4. Muco-ciliary escalator system in the respiratory tract

5. Acidic fluid in the stomach and vagina; urine is acidic.

Identify the specific immune response which targets body cells that are infected or abnormal and the immune system cells responsible.

cell-mediated immune response

List the anterior pituitary hormone(s) released by these hypothalamic hormones and their target gland or organ:






- Adenocorticotropic hormone - adrenal cortex

- Growth Hormone - bones and muscles

- Thyroid stimulating hormone - thyroid gland

- Prolactin - mammary glands

- Follicle -stimulating hormone/ Lutinizing hormone- gonads/gonads

Thyroid hormone acts through __________________ feedback on the release of hormones by the ________________________ pituitary and hypo______________________.




State how the half-life of a hormone may be increased.

binds to Tyroid-binding globulin;TBG

The endocrine system communicates with target cells by way of __________________messengers in the ______________________________.



Sensory receptors for smell are classified as ________________receptors.


Differentiate between rods and cones by shape, location on the retina and by function.

rods - rod shaped/surrounding blind spot/dim light

cones - cone shapped/ontop of blind spot/ color vision/acuity

What Cranial Nerves relay taste information [Fig. 15.7]?

5, 7, 9, 10

The hair cells for hearing are stimulated due to vibration of the ___________________Membrane.