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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

the main functions of the urinary system are

removal of waste and regulation of water and electrolyte balance

the renal artery carries

oxygenated blood that needs to be filtered

what structure conveys urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder


what is the name of the layers of smooth muscle in the wall of the urinary bladder

the detrusor muscle

the internal urethral sphincter is made of

smooth muscle and is controlled by the autonomic nervous system

the external urethral sphincter is made of

skeletal muscle and is controlled by the somatic nervous system

the functional filtration unit of the kidney is the


the junction of the renal medulla and renal cortex is called the

corticomedullary junction

the tip of the renal pyramid projects into

a minor calyx

the major calyces merge to forma single, funnel- shaped

renal pelvis

what is the correct branching sequence of arteries in the kidney

renal artery, segmental arteries, interlobar arteries, arcuate arteries, interlobular arteries

the two components of a nephron are the

renal corpuscle and renal tubule

where does the process of filtration take place

renal corpuscle

what are the components of the renal corpuscle

bowman's capsule and glomerulus

the juxtaglomerular apparatus monitors

blood sodium concentration and adjusts glomerular filtration volume

what structure can be found in the cortex of the kidney

glomeruli, proximal and distal convoluted tubules

the ascending limb is permeable to _____ and impermeable to _____

permeable to salts, impermeable to water

the micturition reflex (urination) involves impulses from the bladder traveling to which region of the spinal cord


which organ in the reproductive system produces the male gamete


which cells produce the male sex hormone, testosterone


what is the name of the cell located in the epithelium of the seminiferous tubule that supports the developing sperm


the urethra travels through which body erectile tissue

corpus spongiosum

what are the names of the accessory glands that secrete substances to form semen

seminal vesicles, prostate gland and bulbourethral gland

which two structures combine to form the ejaculatory duct

the vas deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicle

what is the name of the germ cell from which sperm arise


during spermatogenesis, which of the following cells is the first to become haploid

secondary spermatocyte

secondary spermatocytes divide to form


sperm cells reach maturity in the


spermatids differentiate into sperm cells (spermatozoa) through a process called


which region of the uterine tube is the normal site of fertilization

the ampulla

in the follicular phase of the ovary, follicle development is stimulated by

FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary

in the ovarian cycle, the 14 days after ovulation are called

the luteal phase

the uterine cycle is made up of which phases

menstruation, proliferative, and secretory

the ovarian cycle is made up of which phases

follicular, ovulation, luteal

when does a primary oocyte complete meiosis I

just prior to ovulation

If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum becomes a

corpus albicans

menstruation occurs during days


nuclear condensation, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and acrosomal formation are all associated specifically with


which of the following statements about leydig cells is false

they secrete inhibin

ovulation is most directly attributable to

a surge in circulating concentrations of LH

the cell type is responsible for forming the placenta is the


the kidneys are located in the

peritoneum posterior to the stomach under the 12th rib

blood in the efferent arterioles leaving the cortical nephrons flows directly into the

peritubular capillaries

if within a 24 hour time period, the kidneys filter a total of 180 libers of water from blood and each kidney forms approximately 1 liter of urine, approximately how much water in blood leaves both kidneys via the renal veins in that 24 hour time period

178 liters

if 29 grams of potassium are placed into the glomerular ultrafiltrate in 24 hours and 29 grams of potassium are reabsorbed within the tubules, what process is required to enable 2 grams to enter the ureters


all nephrons have the following 2 structures located in the renal cortex

proximal convoluted tubules and glomeruli

movement of water, ions, urea, small proteins, and glucose from the plasma within glomerular capillaries to form the fluid within the glomerular space is directly involved in


in order to filter blood and place the ultrafiltrate into the glomerular space, which pressure must be the highest

glomerular hydrostatic blood pressure

how to you calculate net filtration pressure

start with glomerular hydrostatic pressure and subtract oncotic pressure and capsular pressure

what would happen to the net filtration pressure if half of the plasma proteins were removed

it would increase

jack lost a fair amount of blood in an accident and it is best to keep more fluid in the cardiovascular system. one change would be to decrease the flow of blood into the glomeruli and decrease the amount of blood filtered. how can these changes best be implemented

vasoconstrict the afferent arteriole

in response to high blood pressure, the myogenic mechanism used to maintain GFR responds by contracting the _________ of the afferent arteriole to allow vasoconstriction and decrease blood flow and _______

smooth muscle cells, gfr

the primary function of the descending loop of henle is to

allow H2O reabsorption

when aquaporins are not placed into the collecting ducts, the following would occur

urine would be more dilute (hypotonic)

tubules in the loop of henle are selectively permeable to __________ whereas the vasa recta is nonselectively permeable to _________

sodium and water for both

when aquaporins are not placed into the collecting ducts, the following would occur

urine would be more dilute (hypotonic)

a substance such as the plant polysaccharide, inulin, is perfect for the measurement of renal clearance because

the filtration and excretion rate is the same

in the renin-angiotensin mechanisms, the following molecule causes vasoconstriction


inhibition of ACE in the lung would result in

a lack of angiotensin II

when more Na and water are reabsorbed one would see

an increase in blood volume and pressure

ADH is a hormone responsible for

placement of active aquaporins in the collecting ducts