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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Which of the following is a role of the endocrine system?


A. helping regulate blood pressure


B. defending against infections


C. filtering urea from the blood


D. all of the above

A. helping regulate blood pressure

Which of the following can be hormones?


A. peptides


B. proteases


C. fatty acids


D. all of the above

A. peptides

Non-steriod hormones:


A. bind with receptor molecules on the cell membrane


B. are formed from cholesterol


C. act by causing the synthesis of messenger RNA molecules


D. all of the above

A. bind with receptor molecules on the cell membrane

Which of the following about steroid hormones is TRUE?


A. steroid hormones bind to receptor molecules on the cell membrane


B. steroid hormones are formed from cholesterol


C. steroid hormones trigger a signal transduction cascade that involves second messenger molecules, such as cAMP


D. steroid hormones cannot directly cross cell membranes

B. steroid hormones are formed from cholesterol

Hormone concentrations can be controlled by:


A. measuring hormone levels


B. the nervous system


C. measuring the level of substances in the blood plasma


D. all of the above

D. all of the above

Which of the following is secreted by nerve fibers in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland?


A. thyroxin


B. adrenocorticotropic hormone


C. growth hormone


D. antidiuretic hormone

D. antidiuretic hormone

Which of the following hormones is produced by the pancreas?


A. glucagon


B. insulin


C. somatostatin


D. all of the above

D. all of the above

What is one of the major outcomes of antidiuretic hormone secretion?


A. causes kidneys to excrete more h2o


B. causes kidneys to reduce volume of h2o


C. stimulates the release of eggs from ovaries


D. stimulates the production of sperm cells

B. causes kidney to reduce the volume of h2o

The hormone that causes calcium to be removed from bone is:


A. cortisol


B. parathyroid hormone


C. thyroxine


D. calcitonin

B. parathyroid hormone

Insulin causes:


A. a decrease in concentration of blood glucose


B. a decrease in permeability of cell membranes to glucose


C. an increase in production of glucose from glycogen


D. all of the above

A. a decrease in concentration of blood glucose

Thyroxine, from thyroid gland, functions to:


A. increase rate of carbs being used


B. enhance rate of urea synthesized


C. inhibit activities within nervous system


D. inhibit rate of calcium entering body fluid

A. increase rate of carbs being used

An example of a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla is:


A. glucagon


B. cortisol


C. aldosterone


D. none of these are correct

D. none of these are correct

Which hormone requires a releasing hormone from the hypothalamus?


A. antidiuretic hormone


B. calcitonin


C. growth hormone


D. all of the above

C. growth hormone

How many liters of blood in average human?


A. 2


B. 5


C. 10


D. 20

B.5

% of solids in human blood is normally:


A. 15%


B. 30%


C. 45%


D. 55%

C. 45%

Correct sequence for a platelet?


A. progranulocyte, hematoblast, erythroblast


B. monoblast, hemocytoblast, monocyte


C. hemocytoblast, myeloblast, progranulocyte


D. hemocytoblast, megakaryoblast, megakaryocyte

D. hemocytoblast, megakaryoblast, megakaryocyte

Which is TRUE for hemoglobin?


A. 75% of a red blood cell?


B. it's bright red when oxygenated


C. breaks down to 4 globin chains and 4 erythropoietins


D. too much causes pernicious anemia

B. it's bright red when oxygenated

Condition called cyanosis is caused by an increased blood concentration of:


A. deoxyhemoglobin


B. oxyhemoglobin


C. oxygen


D. electrolytes

A. deoxyhemoglobin

Leukocytes moving toward damaged cells, because they have released (like histamine), is known as:


A. diapadesis


B. apoptosis


C. cell adhesion


D. positive chemotaxis

D. positive chemotaxis

Which is the most active as phagocytes?


A. erythrocytes


B. neutrophils


C. platelets


D. eosinophils

B. neutrophils

Biconcave cells in blood that lack nuclei:


A. white blood cells


B. red blood cells


C. platelets


D. macrophages

B. red blood cells

The final event in the formation of a blood clot is the change of:


A. fibrinogen to fibrin


B. fibrin to fibrinogen


C. thrombin to prothrombin


D. vitamin K to prothrombin

A. fibrinogen to fibrin

Pulmonary embolism caused by clot reaching:


A. a lung through pulm. artery


B. a lung through pulm. vein


C. heart through pulm. artery


D. heart through pulm. vein

A. a lung through pulm. artery

Agglutination refers to:


A. breakdown of WBC in response to toxic chemicals


B. breakdown of RBC as they age in body


C. clumping of RBC to a reaction between antibodies and antigen on surface


D. gradual creation of a clot

C. clumping of RBC to a reaction between antibodies and antigen on surface

Correct sequence that carry cardiac impulses?


A. AV node, junctional fibers, SA node, Purkinje


B. AV node, Purkinje, SA node, junctional fibers


C. SA node, Purkinje, AV node, junctional fibers


D. SA node, junctional fibers, AV node, Purkinje

D. SA node, junctional fibers, AV node, Purkinje fibers

What happens during ventricular diastole?


A. ventricles contract


B. blood flow to heart is poor


C. aortic and pulm. valves close


D. ventricles pump blood to aorta and pulm. artery

C. aortic and pulm. valves close

When the atrial walls contract:


A. both AV valves open


B. aortic and pulm. valves open


C. both AV valves close


D. bicuspid and tricuspid valves close

A. both AV valves open

Which is TRUE?


A. arteries have larger lumens than veins


B. caps. have larger lumens than arteries


C. arteries have thicker smooth muscle layers than veins


D. arteries have thicker striated muscle layers than veins

C. arteries have thicker smooth muscle layers than veins

Which is NOT important in returning blood to heart?


A. breathing


B. valves in veins


C. contraction of skeletal muscles


D. pumping blood by arterial smooth muscle

D. pumping blood by arterial smooth muscle

Which blood vessels holds most body's blood?


A. arteries


B. metarterioles


C. capillaries


D. veins

D. veins

H2O re-enteers the venule end of a cap. due to:


A. osmotic pressure higher than hydrostatic


B. hydrostatic pressure higher than osmotic


C. active transport being greater than osmotic pressure


D. none of these

A. osmotic pressure being higher than hydrostatic pressure

When smooth muscles in the walls of the veins are stimulated to contract:


A. blood flow slows down


B. blood flow increases


C. blood pressure decreases


D. blood pressure increases

D. blood pressure increases

The medulla and germinal centers of a lymph node, through which lymph passes and is filtered, contains:


A. macrophages


B. thymosins


C. red pulp


D. all of the above

A. macrophages

Lymph is moved along the lymphatic vessels by which mechanism?


A. contraction of adjacent skeletal muscles


B. pumping of the heart


C. striated muscle contractions


D. all of the above

A. contraction of adjacent skeletal muscles

Plasma cells function to:


A. increase the volume of the blood plasma


B. produce antibody molecules


C. directly attack antigens


D. produce interferon

B. produce antibody molecules

Functions of the lymphatic system not include:


A. returning interstitial fluid to the bloodstream


B. removing proteins from interstitial space


C. transporting hormones to intestinal smooth muscle


D. transporting the products of lipid digestion from the intestine to the live

C. transporting hormone to intestinal smooth muscle

The spleen:


A. is the largest lymphatic organ


B. filter blood


C. contains numerous phagocytic cells


D. all of these are correct

D. all of the above

T-lymphocytes are responsible for:


A. programming macrophages


B. producing antibodies


C. cell-mediated immunity


D. humoral immunity

C. cell-mediated immunity

Type of resistance that is given to a newborn baby from its mother is:


A. naturally acquired active immunity


B. artificially acquired active immunity


C. artificially acquired passive immunity


D. naturally acquired passive immunity

D. naturally acquired passive immunity

Which of the following can be antigens?


A. proteins


B. polysaccharides


C. glycolipids


D. all of the above

D. all of the above

Immune cells engulf bacteria and viruses by a process known as:


A. cell fusion


B. phagocytosis


C. receptor-mediated endocytosis


D. facilitated diffusion

B. phagocytosis

True about secondary immune response?


A. capable of producing antibodies within a day or two of exposure to antigen


B. is innate defense mechanism


C. uses natural killer cells


D. all

A. capable of producing antibodies withing a day or two of exposure to antigen

Tissue fluid is__ and lymph is__


A. forced out of lymph vessels: absorbed into lymph vessels


B. forced out of blood plasma: absorbed into blood caps.


C. generally rich in protein: rich in proteins and particles


D. forced out of blood plasma/lacking protein: absorbed into lymph caps./rich in protein

D. forced out of blood plasma/lacking protein: absorbed into lymph caps./rich in protein

Excess histamine is released from mast cells as part of a ___ allergic reaction:


A. type IV


B. type III


C. type II


D. type I

D. type I

a transplant received from a close relative is:


A. allograft


B. autograft


C. xenograft


D. phenograft

A. allograft

True about teeth?


A. blood vessels and nerves are found in pulp cavity


B. incisors are adapted for biting off large pieces of food


C. enamel is the hardest substance in body


D. all of the above

D. all of the above

The parietal cells of gastric glands secrete:


A. mucus


B. pepsinogen


C. hydrochloric acid


D. amylase

C. hydrochloric acid

Sphincter between stomach and intestine?


A. cardiac


B. ileocecal


C. pyloric


D. esophageal

C. pyloric

Functions of the liver include:


A. producing bile


B. creating RBC


C. secreting enterokinase and trypsin


D. all of the above

A. producing bile

All are true EXCEPT:


A. large intestine forms and stores feces


B. majority of nutrient absorption in stomach


C. fat absorption occurs in small intestine


D. peristalsis in SM. intestine is quicker than LG. intestine

B. majority of nutrient absorption in stomach

Secretin, secreted by duodenal cells, functions:


A. stimulate production of HCL in stomach


B. stimulate secretions of gastric glands


C. stimulate release of bicarb from pancreas


D. stimulate release of bile from gall bladder

C. stimulate release of bicarb in pancreas

Which is NOT true of digestive enzymes?


A. sucrase breaks down disaccharides


B. peptidase breaks down peptides


C. lipases break down fats


D. amylases break down amino acids

D. amylases break down amino acids

What constituent of bile has a digestive function?


A. bile salts


B. bile pigments


C. cholesterol


D. electrolytes

A. bile salts

Layer of alimentary canal that absorbs nutrients:


A. mucosa


B. submucosa


C. muscular layer


D. serous layer

A. mucosa

B vitamins are:


A. essential for normal cellular metabolism


B. involved in the oxidation of carbs, lipids, and proteins


C. water-soluble


D. all

D. all

What is an essential amino acid?


A. can easily be synthesized by body's cells


B. breaks down after being cooked


C. can't be synthesized by body's cells


D. withstands high temperatures by cooking

C. can't be synthesized by body's cells

Glucose can be quickly released into the body by breaking down _______


A. cholesterol


B. protein


C. glycogen


D. fats

C. glycogen

Food group that has best source of vitamin C


A. milk and dairy


B. fruits and veggies


C. meat, poultry, and fish


D. breads and cereals

B. fruits and veggies

Trace element important for tooth enamel:


A. iron


B. fluorine


C. iodine


D. zinc

B. fluorine

If too much calcium is taken:


A. deposition in soft tissue


B. brittle teeth


C. cracked fingernails


D. thicker bones

A. deposition of soft tisse

Exchange of gases between air in lungs and blood in caps. is called:


A. ventilation


B. internal respiration


C. external respiration


D. hemorespirtion

C. external respirtion

Vocal cords are located within the:


A. pharynx


B. larynx


C. trachea


D. oral cavity

B. larynx

Volume of air that enters/leaves during normal respiratory cycle is known as:


A. vital capacity


B. tidal volume


C. inspiratory capacity


D. residual volume

B. tidal volume

The lungs contain ____


A. smooth muscle


B. elastic fibers


C. stratified columnar epithelium


D. all

B. elastic fibers

Changes in blood _____ concentration are sensed by central chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata:


A. oxygen


B. hydrogen ion


C. carbonic acid


D. carbon dioxide

B. hydrogen ions

Carbon dioxide can be transported in the blood by:


A. dissolving in plasma


B. converting to bicarb ions


C. binding to hemoglobin


D. all of the above

D. all of the above

Amount of oxygen released from oxyhemoglobin increases when:


A. blood pH goes up


B. carbon dioxide concentration increased


C. temperature decreased


D. all of the above

B. carbon dioxide concentration increased

Hyperventilation is most likely to be accompanied by:


A. decrease in blood CO2 conc. and a rise in pH


B. decrease in blood CO2 conc. and a drop in pH


C. increase in blood CO2 conc. and a rise in pH


D. increase in blood CO2 conc. and a drop in pH

A. decrease in blood CO2 conc. and a rise in pH

Part of the brain responsible for establishing the basic pattern of breathing is:


A. medulla


B. thalamus


C. hypothalamus


D. cerebral cortex

A. medulla

Which is a function of the kidneys?


A. regulating RBC production


B. producing bile


C. filtering metabolic wastes from lymph


D. all of the above

A. regulating RBC production

The ___ carry blood to the glomerular caps.


A. afferent arterioles


B. efferent arterioles


C. peritubular caps.


D. hepatic veins

A. afferent arterioles

Reabsorption of glucose occurs primarily through the walls of the:


A. glomerular capsule


B. proximal convoluted tubule


C. nephron loop


D. distal convoluted tubule

B. proximal convoluted tubule

If blood flow into the glomerulus is constricted:


A. glomerular filtration rate decreases


B. blood flow into efferent arteriole increases


C. hydrostatic pressure in glomerulus increases


D. none

A. glomerular filtration rate decreases

Aldosterone from the adrenal cortex causes sodium ions to be:


A. excreted and water to be excreted


B. excreted and water to be conserved


C. conserved and water to be excreted


D. conserved and water to be conserved



D. conserved and water to be conserved

The countercurrent mechanism functions primarily in the:


A. renal corpuscle


B. proximal convoluted tubule


C. distal convoluted tubule


D. nephron loop

D. nephron loop

After collection in the glomerulus, filtrate moves into the:


A. renal calyx


B. proximal convoluted tubule


C. descending limb in nephron loop


D. ureter

B. proximal convoluted tubule

Many drugs are eliminated from the body in urine. These drugs enter renal tubules by:


A. diffusion


B. tubular reabsorption


C. tubular secretion


D. glomerular filtration

C. tubular secretion

ADH functions to promote water reabsorption through the walls of the:


A. proximal convoluted tubule & collecting duct


B. distal convoluted tubule & collecting duct


C. ascending limb in nephron loop


D. descending limb in nephron loop

B. distal convoluted tubule & collecting duct

Extracellular % of water in males?


A. 35%


B. 45%


C. 55%


D. 65%

A. 35%

Movement of H2O and electrolytes between fluid compartments is regulated primarily:


A. diffusion and osmosis


B. active and passive transport


C. pinocytosis and phagocytosis


D. hydrostatic and oscmotic pressure

D. hydrostatic and osmotic pressure

Extracellular fluids are characterized by relatively:


A. high sodium/low potassium


B. high sodium/high potassium


C. low sodium/low potassium


D. low sodium/ high potassium

A. high sodium/low potassium

When min. amounts of H2O are taken:


A. osmoreceptors in brain swell


B. release of ADH decreases


C. more H2O is reabsorbed from renal collecting ducts


D. all of the above

C. more H2o is reabsorbed from renal collecting ducts

After drinking little H2O, desire for more is usually inhibited by:


A. distension of stomach


B. osmoreceptors in hypothalamus


C. changes in intracellular fluid


D. changed in extracellular fluid

A. distenstion of stomach

Thirst center is located:


A. sacral spinal cord


B. hypothalamus


C. midbrain


D. medulla oblongata

B. hypothalamus

Acid-base buffer systems in blood include:


A. potassium buffer system


B. ketone buffer system


C. bicarb buffer system


D. all of the above

C. bicarb buffer system

Prolonged diarrhea leads to:


A. respiratory acidosis


B. respiratory alkalosis


C. metabolic acidosis


D. metabolic alkalosis

C. metabolic acidosis

If a patient's breathing is obstructed or decreased, it may lead to:


A. respiratory acidosis


B. respiratory alkalosis


C. metabolic acidosis


D. metabolic alkalosis

A. respiratory acidosis

Male reproductive functions are controlled by hormones from the:


A. thalamus


B. anterior pituitary


C. sustentacular cells


D. all of the above

B. anterior pituitary

Sperm cells are stored and mature in:


A. vasa deferentia


B. bulbourethral glands


C. epididymides


D. seminiferous tubules

C. epididymides

Which is TRUE?


A. seminal vesicles surround urethra


B. prostate gland's secretion contains lactose sugar


C. bulbourethral glands secrete mucus-like fluid


D. all of the above

C. bulbourethral glands secrete a mucus-like fluid

Which is TRUE?


A. orgasm required clit stimulation


B. male orgasm parasympathetic, female orgasm sympathetic


C. both sexes, a switch from para. to symp.


D. none

C. both sexes, a switch from para. to symp.

Which is TRUE?


A. nitric oxide causes arteries in penis to dilate


B. the clit and penis both contain erectile tissue


C. orgasm requires a switch from para. to symp.


D. all

D. all

Oral contraceptives contain:


A. synthetic estrogen and progesterone


B. synthetic androgen


C. hCG


D. FSH and LH

A. synthetic estrogen and progesterone

How many sperm cells produced from a single primary spermatocyte?


A. 1


B. 2


C. 4


D. 8

C. 4

Following ejaculation, a human sperm cell is capable of fertilizing an egg for:


A. 1-12 hours


B. 12-24 hours


C. 24-48 hours


D. 3-5 days

C. 24-48 hours

Trophoblast of the blastocyst will give rise to the ____


A. endometrium


B. embryo


C. placenta


D. all

C. placenta

Hormone measured in pregnancy test


A. estrogen


B. progesteron


C. oxytocin


D. hCG

D. hCG

During ovulation, anterior pituitary gland releases a large surge of:


A. estrogen


B. progesterone


C. LH


D. GnRH

C. LH

TRUE regarding fetal stage of development?


A. begins ~8 weeks after fertilization


B. organ systems are mostly formed, immature


C. skin is covered with vernix caseosa


D. all

D. all

Hormone that stimulates uterine contractions:


A. prolactin


B. LH


C. estrogen


D. oxytocin

D. oxytocin

Major body system derived from mesoderm:


A. digestive tract


B. muscular system


C. brain and CNS


D. all

B. muscular system

Foramen ovale allows fetal blood to move from:


A. RT. atrium to LF. atrium


B. LF. atrium to RT. atrium


C. aorta to pulmonary trunk


D. pulmonary trunk to aorta

A. RT. atrium to LF. atrium

Correct development order?


A. embryo, morula, blastomere, blastocyst


B. morula, blastocyst, embryo, fetus


C. zygote, embryo, blastocyst, fetus


D. blastocyst, zygote, morula, embryo



B. morula, blastocyst, embryo, fetus

True regarding determining sex of baby?


A. sex chrom. in egg determines gender


B. sex chrom. in sperm determines gender


C. cells of all babies contain same sex chrom.


D. none

B. sex chrom. in sperm determines gender

True regarding sperm cells?


A. always contain Y chrom.


B. contain X or Y chrom.


C. contain 23 pairs of chrom.


D. non

B. contain X or Y chrom.



Hemophilia is:


A. due to a sex-linked recessive gene


B. passed from affected males to sons


C. more common in females


D. all

A. due to a sex-linked recessive gene

Not true of genetic heterogeneity?


A. it occurs when genes encodedifferent enzymes that catalyze the same biochemical pathway


B. it can occur when genesencode different proteins that are part of the same pathway


C. a single genetic disorder produces several symptoms for the same disease


D. the same phenotype results from actions of different genes

C. a single genetic disorder produces several symptoms for the same disease

Polydactyly is an example of a trait that is both ___ and variably expressive:


A. incompletely penetrant


B. pleiotrophy


C. autosomal


D. completely penetrant

A. incompletely penetrant