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192 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

eukaryotic cell

one with a nucleus and organelles

lysosomes

bag of enzymes

doesnt require energy

diffusion osmosis and facilitated diffusion

requires energy

active transport

sodium potassium pump

more sodium is outside the cell than in it



how to excite muscles

allow sodium back into cell

epithelial tissues

found on body surface and lining many structures

epithelial tissue types

simple squamous lungs


cuboidal cells kidney


stratified squamous skin

connective tissue

adipose fat


dense regular or fibrous tendons


hyaline cartilage


compact bone

Plasma

liquid contains hormones wastes proteins and antibodies

most numerous blood cell

erythrocytes (red cells)

hemoglobin

helps transport oxygen

phagocytes

white blood cells



types of phagocytes

monocytes macrophages and neutrophil

lymphocytes

B cells and T cells

B cells

important in antibody production

T cells

monitor for tumor and viral problems

Other types of white blood cells

basophils eosinophils


have granules

what color do eosinophils and basophils stain

eosinophils stain red basophils blue

platlets

cell fragments that plug leaks



how do they stabilize a clot

proteins work together to produce a net

where are key proteins made

kidneys

how do we break up clots

plasmIN

What type of antigens can red cells display

A antigens


B antigens



what if the cell doesnt display an antigen



they have type O blood

why doesnt the immune system attack O blood

they dont see foreign flags

which cells build bones

osteoblasts

which cells reshape and chew up bones

osteoslasts

what are growth plates made of

hyaline cartilage

where is spongy bone found

core of the bone

what are the tiny beams in the core of the bone called

trabeculae

where in the bones are red blood cells found

bone marrow

what bones are involved in the shoulder joint

humerus and glenoid fossa of the scapula

what muscles are in the rotator cuff

supraspinatus infraspinatus teres minor and subscapularis

what stabilizes the knee

ligaments

what do cruciate ligaments do

keep the anterior and posterior ligaments in check

what do collateral ligaments do

prevents side to side movement

what is a synovial joint

a mobile joint



what are characteristics of a synovial joint

fluid secreting membrane lining the joint

where does the skeletal muscles start and end

origin (bone which does not move) and an insertion (bone which moves)

what connects skeletal muscles to bone

tendons

what is the working unit of a muscle

sarcomere

myosin

thick filaments

thin filaments

actin

what do the filaments do that shortens the muscle

they row past each other and they increase the degree of overlap



what regulates the shortening of muscles

troponin and tropomyosin

where are troponin and tropomyosin found

thin filament with actin

why do we see striated patterns under the microscope when looking at muscle fibers

the overlapping pattern of thick and thin filaments

A band

includes thick filaments and overlap areas

I band

only thin filaments

what is the oxygen storage molecule in muscle

myoglobin

is dark muscle better for a lifter or a runner

runner holds more oxygen

what is an example of nonspecific responders

phagocytes and the complement system

specific system examples

lymphocytes

what identifies a cell as self

the cell surface markers

what are the cell surface markers known as

MHC antigens

why are MHC antigens important in transplants

to make sure the new organ isnt rejected

plasma cells

b lymphocytes

which are made first IgM antibodies or IgG

IgM


IgG are made later and last a longer time

what do vaccines do

stimulate antibody production and teach lymphocytes


this is called producing active immunity

what type of virus is HIV

retrovirus it damages T helper lymphocytes

what protects the upper airway

the epiglottis

what houses the vocal cords

the larynx



what does the trachea lead to

the 2 main bronchial tubes

what is air to the gas exchange areas called

alveoli

how are gases exchanged with blood

diffusion of molecules

how many lobes does the right lung have

3

how many lobes does the left lung have

2



what are the membranes lining the chest and lungs called and what do they do

the pleura reduces friction

how many chambers does the heart have

4

what is the upper receiving chambers

artria left and right atriums

what are the pumping chambers called

ventricles

what side of the heart has poorly oxygenated blood

right

what type of blood does the right side of the heart have

well oxygenated

how many atrioventricular valves are there

2

which side is the tricuspid on

right

what side is the mitral on

left

what are the exit valves

semilunar valves

what is the right semilunar valve called

pulmonic

what is the left semilunar valve called

aortic

what is the sound of a heartbeat

valve closing

what is the first sound of a heart beat

av valve closing

what is the second sound of a heart beat

semilunar valves

where does the heart get its blood supply from

the coronary arteries

what is blocked during a heart attack

the coronary arteries

what is the heart muscle

myocardium

what does the electrical system of the heart consist of

SA node (pacemaker) the av node the bundles and purkinje fibers

what records atrial excitation

The P wave and the EKG

what records the ventricular excitation

the QRS waves

what records the ventricular recovery

the T wave

do arteries carry blood to or from the heart



away

exceptions to arteries carrying blood away

pulmonary artery


umbilical arteries headed to placenta



why are arteries thicker than veins

to withstand the pressures during systole



why do arteries have an elastic recoil

to maintain diastolic blood pressure as the heart rests

what is connected to the pharynx

esophagus

what is at the stomach entrance of the stomach

lower esophageal sphincter

what is at the stomach exit

pyloric sphincter



3 parts of small intestine in order

duodenum jejunum ileum

5 parts of large intestine

cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon

where is feces stored and where does it exit

rectum then it exits the anus

what side is the cecum on

right

which side is the sigmoid on

left

what organs contribute to digestive fluids

liver pancreas and gall bladder

what hormones stimulate the liver gall bladder and pancreas

Secretin and CCK

Where do the bile and digestive fluids from the pancreas to

the duodenum via ducts

how does food travel from the pharynx to the rectum

pharynx->esophagus->esophageal sphincter->stomach->pyloric sphincter-> duodenum->jejunum->ileum->cecum->ascending colon->transverse colon->descending colon->sigmoid colon->rectum



what is the head of the pancreas near and what is the tail by

duodenum and spleen

what are the livers 2 key blood supplies

the portal vein carrying food from intestines


the hepatic artery from the celiac artery

where does blood leave the liver from

central vein travels out the hepatic vein to the inferior vena cava

what do we call the blood vessel branches and bile duct triad at the corners of each liver lobule

triad

how do you catch hepatitis a

ingesting contaminated food and water

how are hepatitis b and c contracted

they are viral so through blood exposure

which hepatitis do we have safe vaccines for

a and b

what is the key cell of the nervous system

neuron

what are the neuron cell extensions called and what do they do

the dendrite receives information


axons send information

what insulates the acons

myelin damaged in multiple sclerosis

how many spinal nerves do we have

31 pairs

how many cranial nerves do we have

12 pairs

where do spinal nerves allow sensory & incoming information to enter

the posterior spinal root

where does outgoing motor information leave the cord

the anterior root

where does information travel in the cord

white matter

what does grey matter do

processes information and is the location of neuron cell bodies and nuclei

where does sensory information cross

in the medulla

what happens with motor information in the medulla

crosses in the medulla

what is the first cranial nerve

olfactory (smell)

what is the second cranial nerve

optic (vision)

what do the third fourth and sixth cranial nerves control

eye movement

what is the 5th cranial nerve

trigeminal (face sensation)

what is the 7th cranial nerve

facial (facial movement)

what is the 8th cranial nerve

auditory (hearing and balance)

what does the 9th cranial nerve control

manages gag reflex

what is the 10th cranial nerve

vagus (gut activity)

what is the 11th cranial nerve

spinoaccessory (shoulder shrug)

what is the 12th cranial nerve

hypoglossal (tongue movement)

what does the frontal cerebral lobe have

motor strip

what does the parietal cerebral lobe have

sensory strip

what does the temporal lobe manage

hearing and occipital vision

what does the hypothalamus do

connects with the pituitary

what are other key areas of the brain

the medulla and pons control basic life functions

what does the cerebellum do

coordinates motor activity

what cells support neurons

glial cells

what are the gaps neurons must negotiate called

synapses

what does a lack of cause parkinsons

dopamine

what does a lack of cause alzheimers

acetycholine

what does a lack of cause depression

serotonin

what helps focus the lens

cornea

what is reshaped during lasik surgery

the cornea

what is the inner layer of the eye

retina



what are rods and cones

photo receptors

what do the cones do

manage color vision and are highly concentrated in the fovea

why is there a blind spot

where the optic nerves and vessels are exiting

what are the other layers of the eye

the outer layer is the sclera


the middle is the choroid

what does the iris do

adjust pupil size

what is our lens connected to

ciliary muscles

what is the name of the ear drum

tympanic membrane

what is in the middle ear

malleus incus and stapes and they convey vibrations to the oval windows

what does the cochlea do with the vibrations

sends them to the 8th cranial nerve

what parts of the ear are involved with balance

semicircular canals and vestibule

what manages pressure in the middle ear

eustachian or auditory tube that connects to the pharynx

what are the 3 major regions of the kidney

outer cortex middle medulla and the inner pelvis

what carries urine to the bladder

ureters

what allows urine to exit the bladder

urethra

what is the nephrons filtering unit

the glomerulus and bowmans capsule


the PCT, loop and DCT

where are small things that enter the filtrate reabsorbed

PCT

what in the kidney can stimulate red blood cell production

erythropoietin

what cause adrenal secretion of aldosterone to raise blood pressure

renin

what are the 2 hormones that are produced by the kidneys

erythropoietin and renin

where is the pituitary in relation to the optic chiasm

posterior

where is the thyroid in relation to the larynx

inferior

what are the anterior pituitary hormones

TSH, FSH, LH, ACTH, GH, and prolactin

what are the posterior pituitary hormones

ADH and oxytocin

what does the thyroid secrete and what does it do

thyroxin to control metabolism and calcitonin to lower blood calcium levels

what can raise blood calcium levels

parathyroids

what does the adrenal cortex secrete

cortisol sex hormones and aldosterone

what does the adrenal cortex secrete

adrenalin

what does the pancreas islet cells make

insulin lowers blood sugar


glucagon raises it

what hormone is released to make sperm in the seminiferous tubules

FSH

what hormone is made in response to LH

leydig cells make testosterone

the follicle cells prepare an egg in response to what hormone

FSH

estrogen and progesterone prepares for what

the uterus endometrium for a potential implantation

what are the 3 key male accessory glands

seminal vesicles, prostate, and cowpers gland contribute to semen

what are the 2 key membranes that protect the fetus

amnion secretes fluid and chorion secretes HCG

what does the umbilical cord attach the baby to

the placenta

how many veins and arteries are in the umbilical cord

2 blue arteries and 1 red vein

what are the 2 lung bypass routes in a baby

the foramen ovale (hole in the heart) and the ductus areriosis (pulonary artery to aorta)

how many types of bases are there

4 but its 3 billion letters long

to grow and replace cells what type of cell division do we use

mitosis

gametes or sperm and egg use what type of diffusion

meiosis

carcinomas originate where

epithelial tissues

sarcomas come from what tissues

connective

what is angiogenesis

formation of new blood vessels


how do you know a tumor is cancerous

if it goes outsidethe site of origin metastasize