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51 Cards in this Set

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3 Types of Cartilages

- Support

- Protection

- Movement

- Storage of minerals and lipids

- Blood cell production


Functions of Bone (5)

Support and Protects (Bone)

Cranium: Protects brain

Rib Cage: Protects lungs, heart

Describes which function of the bone?

Movement (Bone)

Joints, movement of limbs, attachment for muscles

Describes which function of the bone?

Storage of Minerals and Lipids (Bone)

- Minerals: Calcium phosphate. Balance of minerals in bones and body fluids

- Lipids: Yellow marrow in medullary cavity stores fat

Describes which function of the bone?

Blood Cell production (bone)

- Red marrow in spongy bone is source of red and white blood cells

Describes which function of the bone?


- Think full 'dia' meter

- Shaft of long bone

- Thick 'collar' of compact bone that surrounds medullary (marrow) cavity


- Ends of long bone

- Outer shell is compact bone and the interior contains spongy bone

- Hyaline cartilage covers joint surface to cushion during movement and absorbing stress


- Covers outer surface of bone; consists of a inner osteogenic and outer fibrous layer


- Internal bone surface (Marrow) lining that is an incomplete cellular layer containing osteoblasts, osteoclasts, epithelial and osteoprogenitor cells

- Covers trabeculae of spongy bone and lines the canals that pass through compact bone

Epiphyseal plate

- Hyaline cartilage till adult hood. Found at epiphysis.

- Between the diaphysis and each epiphysis of an adult long bone is an epiphyseal line, a remnant of the _________, a disc of hyaline cartilage that grows during childhood to lengthen the bone

Articular cartilage

Cartilage that remains on outer surface of the epiphysis where bone forms joint with another bone

Outer Fibrous Layer

Inner Osteogenic Layer

2 Layers of Periosteum

Inner Osteogenic Layer

Cells for bone formation or bone break down - a layer of periosteum

Outer Fibrous Layer

Dense irregular connective tissue that is important for attachment of muscle tendons to the bone - a layer of periosteum

Its scattered cells in a matrix

Bone is considered a connective tissue because?

Osteoprogenitor cells (Also called osteogenic)





Scattered Cells of Bone Tissue (4)

Osteoprogenitor Cells (Osteogenic)

- Squamous bone stem cells found in endosteum and periosteum

- From mesenchymal stem cells to ________________ to osteoblasts


-Make new bone (scattered cell), immature bone cells that secrete organic components of matrix to synthesize it, for bone growth

- Analogous to fibroblasts in connective tissue and chondroblasts in cartilage


- Mature bone cells, most frequent bone cells that maintains the bone matrix

- Osteoblasts - trapped in lacuna - become this


- Derived from white blood cells

- Help reshape, reform whole bone

- Multinucleate cell that secretes acids and enzymes to dissolve bone matrix

Compact Bone

- Hard outer surface of bone

- Composed of Osteons (concentric layers of osteocytes within lamellae

- Lamellae surround central canal (Haversian)

- Haversion canal carry blood vessels, run parallel to surface

Spongy Bone

- Found at epiphysis of long bones and interior of flat bones such as sternum

- No osteons, instead honeycomb like cavities called trabeculae

- Red marrow

- Osteocytes get nourishment from canaliculi

At endosteum and periosteum

How does bone grow in width?

At epiphyseal cartilage

How does bone grow in length?

Bone grow in length

- Cartilage added to epiphyseal side of cartilage

- Osteoblasts invade cartilage on diaphyseal side, replace with bone.

- At puberty: cartilage growth decrease while bone addition continues

- Epiphyseal cartilage disappears and replaced by epiphyseal line

How bones grow in ____________


Means = Making bone (Bone formation)

Endochondral Ossification: Bone develops by replacing hyaline cartilage

Intramembranous Ossification: Bone develops from fibrous connective tissue (membrane)

Formation of the Bony Skeleton of fetuses has two types depending on what it develops from

EndoChondral Ossification (How the bones below the skull grow, except for clavicles)

- Bone begins as hyaline cartilage formed by interstitial and appositional growth of cartilage

- Blood vessels grow into perichondrium surrounding hyaline cartilage shaft

- Cells in the perichondrium become osteoblasts construct layer of bone

- Chondrocytes within diaphysis begin to enlarge, die and resorb (degrade) cartilage, creating cavities

- Slender strips (trabeculae) of cartilage remain

- Blood vessels, osteoblasts and bone marrow cells move in the cavities within diaphysis

- Primary ossification center formed as spongy bone

- Perichondrium becomes periosteum. Bony collar form around middle diaphysis

- Remaining cartilage inside becomes calcified, erodes and then replaced by bone

- Secondary ossification centers develop in epiphyses.

Intramembranous Ossification (How the dermal bones: flat bones of the skull, the mandible, clavicle form)

- Begins within fibrous connective tissue.

- Mesenchymal cells -> osteoprogenitor cells -> osteoblasts

- Osteoblasts secrete matrix

- Spicules (trabeculae) of bone and periosteum form

- Fills with red marrow

- Can later turn into compact bone



Spongy Bone (Bony callus)



Bone Repair Steps (4)

Fracture Repair

- Extensive bleeding occurs and blood clot forms

- An internal callus forms spongy bone joins in inner edges

- An external callus of cartilage and bone stabilize outer edge

- Cartilage of external callus has been replaced by bone and sponge

- Fragments of dead bone and areas of close bone have been removed and replaced

- Swelling initially

Parathyroid hormone

Thyroid hormone

Calcium Homeostasis (2)

Parathyroid hormone

- Increase the formation of new osteoclasts and increase osteoclast activity - more bone resorption

- This causes calcium to be released into blood

- Too much in blood or urine causes problems with kidneys

- Kidneys release less calcium in urine

- Increase blood calcium levels

Thyroid hormone (calcitonin)

- Inhibits osteoclast activity - less bone resorption

- Kidneys release more calcium in urine

- Calcium from blood used to build bone

Colles fracture

Greenstick fracture

Fracture types, Distal Radius (Wrist) (2)

Colles fracture

Break in the distal radius bone caused by backward displacement of head, such as reaching out to cushion a fall

Greenstick fracture

- One side of the shaft is broken and the other side bent (fracture), incomplete break

- Typically occurs in children whose long bones have yet to ossify fully and are more flexible


Bones become weak, brittle because too much spongy bone has been absorbed by osteoclast resorption activity

Articular cartilage

Costal Cartilage

Respiratory cartilages

Nasal cartilages


Skeletal hyaline cartilages include: (4)

Articular cartilages

Cartilage (artic = joint, point of connection), which cover the ends of most bones at movable joints

Costal cartilages

Cartilage that connect the ribs to the sternum (breastbone)

Appositional growth

Interstitial growth

Two ways that cartilage grows

Appositional growth

Type of cartilage growth where cartilage forming cells in the surrounding perichondrium secrete new matrix against the external face of the existing cartilage tissue

Interstitial growth

Type of cartilage growth where lacunae-bound chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding the cartilage from within


Honeycomb shaped, flat or needle like pieces connected altogether within the spongy bone


Step of bone repair where a mass of clotted blood forms at fracture site, inflammation


Step of bone repair where blood vessels, fibroblasts and cartilage and osteogenic cells invade fracture site, fibroblasts produce collagen fibers to connect broken ends

Spongy bone

Step of bone repair where new bone trabeculae form in fibrocartilaginous callus. Repeats the events of endochondral ossification


Step of bone repair where excess material on diaphysis exterior and within medullary cavity is removed

Epiphyseal fracture

- Fracture where epiphysis separates from the diaphysis along epiphyseal plate

- Fracture that tends to occur where bone matrix is undergoing calcification/chondrocytes are dying