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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are Tissues?

Groups of cells similar in structure and function
What are the 4 types of Tissues?

1. Epithelial
2. Connective
3. Muscle
4. Nerve
What is Epithelial Tissue made up of?

Composed almost entirely of cells
What are Desmosomes?

Cell junction composed of thickened plasma membranes joined by filaments
What are Tight Junctions?

Area where plasma membranes of adjacent cells are fused
What type of tissue lines internal and external body surfaces?

Epithelial Tissue
What is meant by Special Contacts of Epithelia?

Form continuous sheets held together by Tight Junctions and Desmosomes
What type of surfaces does Epithelia Tissue have (polarity)?

Apical and Basal surfaces
What is meant by Apical surface?

Free to a body cavity
What is meant by Basal surface?

Connected to underlying tissues
What is meant by Innervated?

Has nerve supply
What supports Epithelia?

Connective Tissue
Is Epithelial Tissue Vascular or Avascular?

What are the 6 characteristics of Epithelial Tissue?

1. Cellularity (Composed of cells)
2. Special Contacts (form continuous sheets held together by tight junctions and desmosomes)
3. Polarity (apical and basal surfaces)
4. Supported by connective tissue (reticular and basal laminae)
5. Avascular but innervated (contains no blood vessels but supplied by nerve fibers)
6. Regenerative (rapidly replaces lost cells by cell division) 
How is Epithelial Tissue Classified?

1. Number of layers
2. Shape
What is ONE layer of Epithelia cells called?
Simple Epithelia
What are MULTIPLE layers of Epithelia cells called?

Stratified Epithelium
What are Flat Epithelia cells called?

Squamous Epithelium
What are cube shaped cells called?

What are long column shaped cells called?

What is the Function of a Simple Squamous cell?

1. Diffusion and Filtration

2. Provide a slick, friction-reducing lining in lymphatic and cardiovascular systems.
What are some examples of where we can find Simple Squamous cells?

Kidneys, Lining of Heart, Blood Vessels, Lymphatic Vessels, and Serosae
What is the function of Simple Cuboidal cells?

Secretion and Absorption
Where can Simple Cuboidal cells be found?

Kidney Tubules, Ducts and Secretory Portions of small glands, and Ovary Surface
What are Cilia?

Tiny hairlike projections
What is Lamina?

A thin layer (“sheet”)
What is the function of Simple Columnar cells?

Absorption and Secretion
Where is Simple Columnar cells found?

Digestive Tract and Gallbladder (nonciliated)

Respiratory and Reproductive Systems (ciliated)
Goblet Cells

Specialized cells that produce mucus
What type of cells do Goblet Cells usually accompany?

Simple Columnar
What types of cells are very rarely found in humans?

Stratified Cuboidal and Stratified Columnar Epithelia
What is unique about Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium?

All of the cells rest on the basement membrane (basal surface), but because they vary in height, not all of the cells reach the apical surface. In turn it looks like multiple layers when it’s only a single layer.
What is the function of Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium?

Secretion and Propulsion of mucus
Where is Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium found?

Trachea (ciliated)

Male Sperm-Carrying ducts (non ciliated)
What is the purpose of Stratified Squamous?

Physical Protection
Where is Stratified Squamous Epithelium found?

Skin, Linings of Mouth, Esophagus, and Vagina
What is the function of Transitional Epithelium?

To allow for expansion
(ex. Bladder)
What is unique about Transitional Epithelia?

It can transition from many layers to just a couple layers.
Where are Transitional Epithelia found?

Bladder, Ureters and a very small amount may be found in part of the Urethra
What are the 8 types of Epithelia?

1. Simple Squamous
2. Simple Columnar
3. Simple Cuboidal
4. Stratified Squamous
5. Stratified Columnar
6. Stratified Cuboidal
7. Transitional
8. Pseudostratified
What are the two modes of Secretion?

1. Merocrine
2. Holocrine
How do Merocrine Glands work?

Cells secrete material by exocytosis
How do Holocrine Glands work?

Cells rupture to secrete material 
Where is Connective Tissue found?

Throughout the body…most abundant and widely distributed in primary tissues
What are the 4 Main Classes of Connective Tissue?

1. Connective Tissue Proper
2. Cartilage
3. Bone Tissue
4. Blood
What are the Major Functions of the Connective Tissue?

1. Binding & Supporting
2. Protection
3. Insulation
4. Transportation of substances w/in the body.
What are the Characteristics of Connective Tissue?

1. Common Origin (mesenchyme)
2. Varying Degrees of Vascularity
3. Nonliving Extracellular Matrix (consisting of ground substances & fibers)
What is Mesenchyme?

Embryonic Connective Tissue


Tears Down Tissue
Cell that Builds Fibers
Cell that is not actively functioning
Cell that Builds Cartilage
Cell that is not actively functioning
Cell that Builds Bone
Cell that is not actively functioning

Cell that tears down/remove bone
Hematopoietic Stem Cells

Undifferentiated blast cell that produces blood cells.
What is Ground Substance made of?

1. Interstitial (tissue) Fluid
2. Cell Adhesion Proteins (fibronectin and laminin)
3. Proteoglycans (glycosaminoglycans-GAGs)
What is the function of the Ground Substance?

It functions as a molecular sieve through which nutrients diffuse between blood capillaries and cells
What are the 3 types of fibers in Connective Tissue?

1. Collagen
2. Elastic
3. Reticular
What is….?

1. Collagen
2. Elastic
3. Reticular
Connective Tissue Fiber that is…

1. Tough & provides high tensile strength.

2. Long & thin & allows for stretch.

3. Branched collagenous fibers that form delicate networks.
Describe Mesenchyme

• Gel-like ground substance w/fibers and star shaped mesenchymal cells.

• No distinct characteristics because it has not developed into a specific type of connective tissue.

• Found in embryo
What are the types of Loose Connective Tissue?

1. Areolar

2. Adipose (Fat)

3. Reticular
Describe Areolar Connective Tissue

• Gel-like matrix w/all three connective tissue fibers. (collagen, elastic & reticular)

• Found all throughout the body

• Wraps & cushions organs
Describe Adipose (Fat) Tissue

• Matrix similar to areolar w/closely packed adipocytes.
• Reserves food stores, insulates, supports, and protects.
• Found under skin, around kidneys, w/in abdomen, & in breasts.
• Local fat deposits serve nutrient needs of highly active organs.
Describe Reticular Tissue

• Loose ground substance w/reticular fibers.

• Large # of reticular fibers

• Forms soft internal framework for immune system structures (lymph nodes, bone marrow, & the spleen)
What are the 2 types of Dense Connective Tissue?

1. Regular
2. Irregular
Describe Dense Regular Connective Tissue

• Parallel collagen fibers w/a few elastic fibers

• Attaches muscle to bone or other muscles, and bone to bone

• Forms Tendons, Ligaments, and Aponeuroses
What is the main difference between Dense Regular and Dense Irregular Connective Tissue?

The arrangements of fibers
(Regular = fibers are parallel.
Irregular = fibers run in many different directions) 
Describe Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
• Irregularly arranged collagen fibers w/some elastic fibers
• W/stand tension in many directions providing structural strength
• Found in the dermis, submucosa of the digestive tract, and fibrous organ capsules
What Major Cell Type makes up Dense Regular and Irregular Connective Tissue?

What is a Gland?

One or more cells that makes and secretes an aqueous fluid
How are Glands classified?

1. Site of product release
(endocrine or exocrine)

2. Number of cells forming gland
(unicellular or multicellular)
What is the difference between Endocrine and Exocrine Glands?

• Exocrine Glands release secretions onto a body surface (have ducts).

• Endocrine Glands do NOT release their secretions onto a body surface. (No ducts)
What do Endocrine Glands secrete?

Amino Acids, Proteins, Glycoproteins, and Steroids…mainly into the blood
What do Exocrine Glands secrete?

Mucous, Sweat, Oil, and Saliva…onto body surfaces or into body cavities
How are Multicellular Exocrine Glands classified?

• Simple or compound duct type

• Structure of their secretory unit
What are the 3 types of Cartilage?
1. Hyaline
2. Elastic
3. Fibrocartilage
What is the most common Cartilage?
Hyaline is most common
Where are Chondrocytes found in cartilage?

In Lacuna
Describe the Matrix of each of the following…

1. Hyaline
2. Elastic
3. Fibrocartilage

1. Amorphous , but firm
Collagen fibers form imperceptible network

2. Similar to Hyaline, but
more elastic fibers in matrix

3. Similar to Hyaline, but less firm
Thick collagen fibers predominate 
Where is Hyaline Cartilage found?
1. Embryonic skeleton
2. Ends of long bones
3. Nose, Trachea & Larynx
4. Costal Cartilage of Ribs
What is the function of Hyaline Cartilage?

Supports, reinforces, cushions & resists compression 
Where is Elastic Cartilage found in the human body?
1. Ear
2. Epiglottis
What is the function of Elastic Cartilage?
Maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility
Where is Fibrocartilage found?
1. Intervertebral Discs
2. Pubic Symphysis
3. Discs of Knee Joint
What is the function of Fibrocartilage?

Tensile strength w/the ability to absorb compressive shock
Where is Osseous Tissue found?
What is the function of Osseous Tissue?
Supports, Protects & Provides Lever for Muscular Action
What is Osseous Tissue the site of?

What is Hematopoiesis?
(Know how to spell it)
Blood Cell Formation
Where does Hematopoiesis occur?

Bone Marrow
What Tissue Stores Calcium, Minerals, and Fat?

Osseous (Bone) Tissue
What lives in the central hole in Osseous Tissue?

Blood Vessel
Where is Blood found?
Contained within Blood Vessels
What is the function of Blood?
Transport Respiratory Gases, Nutrients, Waste & other substances
What is Plasma?
The Extracellular Matrix of Blood
Where is Nervous Tissue Found?
Brain, Spinal Cord & Nerves
What is the function of Nervous Tissue?

Transmits electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors (muscles & glands) which controls their activity
What is the physical description of Nervous Tissue?

Branched neurons w/long cellular processes (Axon & Dendrites) and support cells (centrally located nuclei)
What do Anxons do?
Transmit electrical impulses over substantial distances within the body (ex. Brain to toes)
What do Dendrites do?

Respond to stimuli
What are the 3 types of Muscle Tissue?

1. Cardiac
2. Skeletal
3. Smooth
1. Where is Cardiac Muscle Tissue Located?

2. What is the function of Cardiac Muscle?

3. How is it unique?

1. Only in walls in heart

2. Contracts to propel blood into circulation through the body.

3. Striated cells w/o nuclei & they are connected by intercalated discs.
1. Where is Skeletal Muscle Tissue Located?

2. What is the function of Skeletal Muscle?

3. How is it unique?

1. Skeletal muscles that attach to bones or skin
2. Initiates and controls voluntary movements
3. Long cylindrical w/lots of nuclei & is very obviously striated.
1. Where is Smooth Muscle Tissue Located?

2. What is the function of Skeletal Muscle?

3. How is it unique?

1. Wall of hollow organs (NOT heart)
2. Moves substances (food, urine, etc…) along internal passageways
3. Spindle shaped, central nuclei, not striated. Cells close together to form sheets
1. What are the Voluntary Muscle Tissues?

2. What are the Involuntary Muscle Tissues?

1. Skeletal

2. Smooth & Cardiac