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21 Cards in this Set

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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


Prehistoric

•It is assumed that they knew little about the inner workings of the human body


•Some of their burial practices suggest they must have at least known something about bone structure


•It is possible that they believed the workings of the body were controlled by spirits (animism)

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


Egyptian

•The fact that Egyptians embalmed bodies meant that they often saw what was going on inside humans


•They saw the heart as the centre of a system of 46 channels


•They did not realise that the different ‘channels’ had different purposes


•They believed that life was created and controlled by the Gods

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


Romen (Galen)

•He had to rely mainly on the dissection of animals, which was unreliable


•Although Galen’s books show a good knowledge of bone structure, he made quite a few mistakes such as he believed the jawbone was two bones instead of one.


•Galen’s theory of the heart:the liver creates blood which is sent to the heart and disappears through invisible holes in the septum (a part of the heart)


•He conducted an experiment on a pig in which he cut different nerves in the pig’s neck to prove that the central nervous system (brain) controls our actions


•Human dissection was banned by the church so he went to Alexandria to study human bodies

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


The Renaissance

•People were able to find out more in this period because of the development of printing and the weakening of the church’s control.


•Key People:


–Andreas Vesalius(1514-1564)


–William Harvey(1578-1657)

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


Andreas Vesalius

•Worked on mapping the human body


•Discovered that;


–Thehuman jawbone is one bone,not two


–The breast bone has three parts,not seven


–Blood does not flow through the heart through invisible holes in the septum


•Wrote a book, ‘TheFabric of the Human Body’ which was a detailed description of human anatomy

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


William Harvey

•Worked on the circulation of the blood and the heart


•Proved that the heart acts as a pump,pumping blood around the body by:


–Dissecting live cold-blooded animals


–Dissecting human bodies


–Proving the body has a one way system for blood


–Proving that the same blood is being pumped around the body by the heart


•Wrote a book, ‘An Anatomical Account of the Motion of the Heart and Blood’

SURGERY


The Ancient World

•Trephining was carried out in the Prehistoric time


•Greek and Roman surgery was centred around wounds related to their armies; amputating limbs, setting broken bones etc

SURGERY


The Middle Ages


- coping with pain, infection and bleeding

•Barber surgeons:the same people in a village that cut hair would also carry out operations


•Coping with:


–PAIN:herbs such as mandrake, opium or hemlock (too much would be lethal)


–INFECTION:dressing wound with barley and honey


–BLEEDING:wounds were cauterized(sealed with boiling oil)

SURGERY: THE RENAISSANCE


Ambroise Paré

•Army surgeon inFrance


•He changed cauterization to a mixture of egg yolks, rose oil and turpentine


•Used ligatures(silk threads tied around individual blood vessels) to stop bleeding


•Designed and arranged the making of false limbs for soldiers

1800 - Present day


Three barriers that needed to be overcome

PAIN


INFECTION


BLEEDING

ANAESTHETICS


Nitrous Oxide

•1799


•Developed by Humphry Davy


•Reduced sensation of pain, used in tooth extractions


•Didn’t make patients completely unconscious

ANAESTHETICS


Ether

•1846-47


•Developed by John Collins and J.R. Liston


•Inhaled fluid, no sensation of pain


•Irritated eyes and lungs, vile smelling

ANAESTHETICS


Chloroform

•1847


•Discovered by James Simpson at a dinner party when he and his colleagues inhaled various gases to see what would happen


•Very effective, used to help women in childbirth •Too much could leave patients out for days.

ANAESTHETICS


Why were they eventually accepted?

–James Simpson was exceptionally good at arguing his case, and he used examples from scientists such as Paré to support his points


–Queen Victoria used chloroform when having her eighth child and survived the birth

ANTISEPTIC SURGERY


Ignaz Semmelweiss



–Said infection could be stopped by washing hands


–Ignored because he had forceful methods of persuasion and no scientific evidence

ANTISEPTIC SURGERY


Joseph Lister

–One of the outstanding surgeons in the 19th century


–Influenced Pasteur’s work on the germ theory


–Used carbolic acid to sterilize instruments and he got this idea from the fact that carbolic acid was used to get rid of the bad smells in sewage


–Developed a carbolic spray to sterilize a room

ANTISEPTIC SURGERY


Opposition to Lister

–SCIENTIFIC


•Carbolic soaks everything, cracks surgeons’ skin, expensive and unpleasant


•When surgeons tried to copy Lister’s methods, they did not achieve the same results


–CONSERVATIVE ATTITUDES


•Lister’santiseptic methods slowed operations down


•Even trained surgeons found it difficult to accept that there were tiny micro-organisms all around causing infection and disease


–LISTER HIMSELF


•He appeared to be cold, arrogant and a fanatic


•Lister kept changing his methods to try and improve the spray

ASEPTIC SURGERY


Definition and actions made

•Aseptic:gets rid of all germs from the environment, ensuring that the room is sterilized,meaning there would be no germs in the first place


•1887:all instruments steam sterilized


•1894:sterilized rubber gloves


•Surgical gowns and face masks were worn by surgeons

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


Blood Groups

–Discovered in 1901 by Karl Landsteiner


–Meant safer blood transfusions and safer surgery

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


Examples of surgeries and technology

Micro-surgery, Keyhole surgery, X-rays, endoscopes, ultrasound, CT scans, MRI scans, life support machines, dialysis machines

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


Why was Plastic Surgery developed?

Injuries caused by warfare