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77 Cards in this Set

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Master controlling and communicating system of the body. Signals with electrical impulses.

Nervous system
Which are the two principal divisions of the nervous system?

Peripheral and Central
Gathered information:

Sensory input
Another word for changes
stimuli
To process and interpret sensory input and decide if action is needed
Motor output
What are the main organs in the central nervous system?

Brain and Spinal Cord
What are the main functions of the central nervous system?

integration; command center, interpret incoming sensory information, issues outgoing instructions

What are the main components of the peripheral nervous system?

Cranial and spinal nerves

What are the main functions of the peripheral nervous system?

Serves as a communication line between all parts of the body by carry impulses.



What are the two types of cells found in the nervous system?


Neurons and Glia
What does the autonomic nervous system consist of?

Sense organs and structures that regulate the body's autonomic functions (glandular secretions, heart beat, intestine contractions)
Which two divisions is the peripheral nervous systems further divided into?
Sensory (afferent) division and Motor (efferent) division

What is the function of the sensory (afferent) division of the peripheral nervous system?



Has nerve fibers that carry impulses to the central nervous system
What is the function of the motor (efferent) division of the peripheral nervous system?
Has nerve fibers that carry impulses away from the central nervous system.

Which two subdivisions is the Motor (efferent) division of the peripheral nervous system further divided into?

Somatic (voluntary) and Autonomic (involuntary...hint hint automatic)

What is the function of the somatic (voluntary) nervous system?
Conscious control of the skeletal muscles

What is the function of the autonomic (involuntary) nervous system?

Automatically controls smooth and cardiac muscles and glands.
Which two subdivisions is the Autonomic (involuntary) nervous system further divided into?

parasympathetic and sympathetic

What three parts does a neuron consist of?

Cell body and processes (dendrites and axon)

Contains the nucleus in a neuron.

Cell body

in a neuron, branching projections that transmit impulses TOWARD cell bodies or axons

dendrites

in a neuron, one elongated projection that transmits impulses AWAY from cell bodies or dendrites

axon
Whitish, fatty material that covers axons

Myeln sheath

myelin sheath is a white, fatty lipid material formed by what?
schwann cells (PNS) and oligodendrocytes (CNS)
Gaps in myelin sheath along the axon

Nodes of Ranvier

Sensory neurons transmit impulses to the spinal cord and brain from all parts of the body and are also called


afferent nerves

These neurons transmit impulses in the opposite direction of sensory. Also called efferent. What are they called and in which direction do they transmit?

Motor neurons and away from the brain and spinal cord. (to viscera, muscles, glands)

These neurons conduct impulses from sensory to motor neurons.


interneurons
In regards to neuron structure:, this is the most common, includes both interneuron and motor neurons, and contains many extensions from the cell body.

Multi polar neurons
In regards to neuron structure: these apply to sensory neurons found in the PNS ganglia and have a short single process leaving the cell body

unipolar neurons

What is glia often thought of as?

The glue of the nervous system

What functions does glia perform?

hold neurons together and protect them, also insulate (support, insulate, protect)


Name the types of CNS glia


astrocytes, microglia, ependymal, and oligodendrocytes
Name the types of PNS glia

Schwann cells and Satellite cells

Describe astrocytes
In the CNS, most abundant and versatile neuroglia, important in the blood blain barrier

Describe microglia
In the CNS, spiderlike phagocytes that dispose of debris
Describe ependymal cells

In the CNS, line the central cavities of the brain and spinal cord, help to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid

Describe oligodendrocytes

In the CNS, producing fatty insulating coverings called myelin sheaths

Describe Schwann cells

In the PNS, form the myelin sheaths around nerve fibers

Describe Satellite cells
In the PNS, act as protective cushioning cells
Describe the plasma membrane in a resting neuron.

Polarized, slightly more positive as compared to the inside of the cell
At rest, which ions is there an excess of on the outside of the cell? The inside?
Outside: sodium ... Inside: potassium

A specialized type of neuron pathway that allows impulses in only one direction. (sensory --> interneuron --> effector)

reflex arc

The simplest type of reflex arc consisting of sensory and motor neurons

two-neuron arc

A type of reflex arc consisting of motor, sensory, and interneuron neurons

three-neuron arc

Which type of reflex arc is the patellar reflex?

two-neuron


Which type of reflex arc is the flexor (withdrawal) reflex?


Three neuron arc

What are the protective regions of the brain and spinal cord called?


meninges



Name the four divisions of the brain.

brainstem, cerebellum, diencephalon, cerebrum


What two major structures make up the diencephalon?
hypothalamus and thalamus, also includes the epithalamus
What does the thalamus do?

Surrounds the third ventricle, Helps produce sensations (sensory impulse), associates sensations with emotion

What is the hypothalamus mainly responsible for?

Major control over virtually all major organs (autonomic nervous system --> regulates body temperature, water balance, metabolism)

Which structures make up the brain stem?

Midbrain, Pons, Medulla oblongata

What is the brainstem responsible for?
Vital Controls (cardiac and respiratory)

What is the cerebellum responsible for?

Plays an essential role in normal movements.
These divide the cerebrum into lobes

Fissures

Name the lobes of the cerebrum

Occipital, Frontal, Temporal, Parietal

What are some functions of the cerebrum?

Vision, hearing, thinking, speech, memory
Unmyelinated, outer layer in the cerebral cortex composed mostly of neuron cell bodies.

Gray matter

Myelinated, fiber tracts deep to the gray matter

White matter
What connects the hemispheres of the brain?

Corpus callosum

Islands of gray matter buried deep within the white matter

Basal nuclei

What two sections are the nerves of the body divided into?

Somatic (stimulates skeletal muscle) and autonomic (stimulates cardiac and smooth)




A group of peripheral axons bundled together like the strands of a cable that have a myelin sheath.

nerve

in a nerve, this wraps the entire nerve

epinerium
in a nerve, this surrounds each fascicle

perineurium

in a nerve, this surrounds each individual nerve fibre

endoneurium

these, which speed up impulses, are indentations between adjacent schwann cells


nodes of ranvier

In this degenerative disease the myelin sheath is damaged, disrupting normal nerve condition

multiple sclerosis
What protects the central nervous system?

Skin and scalp, skull and vertebral column, meninges, CSF (cerebro spinal fluid), blood brain barrier

Where does the spinal cord extend from and to?

Foramen magnum to the second lumbar vertebra
How many pairs of spinal nerves?

31

Collection of spinal nerves at the inferior end

Cauda equina
What covers the spinal cord?

Meninges

Associated with the dorsal root ganglia (collections outside the central nervous system)
Dorsal root

This root contains axons
Ventral root