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47 Cards in this Set

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Tendons, made of fibrous connective tissue, merge with the ________ that covers the muscle and with the ________
fascia
Periosteum (the fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers bones)
What is the more immobile attachment called?
What is the movable attachment called?
Origin

Insertion
What is an antagonist muscle?
Muscle with opposing or opposite functions

(biceps, and triceps)
What is a synergistic muscle?
muscles with the same function
(biceps brachii, brachialis)
The nerve impulses for movement (contraction of skeletal muscle) comes from where?
the frontal lobes of the cerebrum
what is it when antagonistic muscles on front and back of the thigh or lower leg alternate contractions and relaxation to make steps smooth and efficient?
coordination
What part of the brain coordinates voluntary movement?
Cerebellum
A muscle in a state of slight contraction is called?
muscle tone
Where is the alternate muscle fiber contractions regulated?
Cerebellum
Heat generated by normal muscle tone makes up what percent of total body heat at rest?
25%
What is Isotonic exercise
muscle contraction with movement, usually against a resistance.
ex. lifting weights
What is Isometric exercise?
Contraction without movement
What is the brain's ability to know where our muscles are and what they are doing w/out having to consciously look at them?
Muscle sense (proprioception)
What are the functions of
1. Stretch receptors

2. sensory receptors
1. detect changes in length of muscle as it is stretched

2. detect changes
Where is the impulse for muscle sense integrated?
parietal lobes of the cerebrum (conscious muscle sense) and in the cerebellum (uncouncious muscle sense)
What is the primary direct source of energy for muscles?

What is the secondary source?
ATP

Creatine phosphate and glycogen
What is the most abundant energy source in muscle fibers?
Glycogen
what are the two sources of oxygen to muscle fibers?
1. hemoglobin of blood transports oxygen

2. protein myoglobin stores oxygen within muscle cells
(both contain iron)
What happens when muscles run out of oxygen (oxygen debt)?
1.glucose cannot be completely broken down to carbon dioxide and water.
2. Glucose is converted to lactic acid which causes muscle fatigue
Each muscle fiber has its own nerve ending called the _____
neuromuscular junction
______is the enlarged tip of the motor neron and what does it contain?
axon terminal; sacs of neurotransmitter acetylcholine
what is membrane of muscle fiber called?
sarcolemma
what are the individual contracting units within muscle fibers called?
sarcomeres
Sarcomeres are arranged end to end in cylinders called ____
myofibrils
What are the end boundries of a sarcomere called?
Z lines
Filaments of myosin and actin are found where within the sarcomere?
Myosin is found in the center

actin at the ends attached to Z lines
Myosin and actin are proteins that do what?
produce muscle contraction
What are troponin and tropomyosin part of and what do they do?
actin filaments; prevent sliding of actin and myosin when muscle fiber is relaxed
What is sarcoplasmic reticulum?
reservior for calcium ions
During polarization what charge does inside and outside of cell have?
Outside is positive
inside is negative
Sodium ions on the outside tend to diffue into cell. what pumps them out?
sodium pump
Potassium ions tend to diffuse outside...what pumps the back in?
Potassium pump
what is a tetanus?
sustained muscle contraction that is necessary for normal movement
The neuromuscular junction refers to what 3 parts?
axon terminal, synapse, and sarcolemma
The energy of ATP is released within muscle fibers by?
myosin
What is a single muscle cell covered by?
connective tissue sheath
A group of muscle cells bound together with a band or sheath they are called what?
vassicle
A group of vassicles are bound by what?
Muscle fascia (this unit is the name of the muscle, biceps etc.)
What are the 9 steps of muscle contraction?
# 1.
Action potential travels down the axon of the nerve and ends at the neuromuscular junction
# 2
Acetylcholine is released into the synaptic cleft of the neuromuscular junction
#3
Sodium ions rush in Acetlycholine binds to receptors which open sodium channels.momentarily changing the polarity of the muscle cell membrane to positive on the inside and negative on the outside
#4
Sodium ions rush in momentarily changing the polarity of the muscle cell membrane to positive on the inside and negative on the outside.
#5.
the action potential travels in a wave along the cell membrane and down the T-tubules
#6
action potential causes the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium next to the actin and myosin filaments
#7.
calcium then binds to triponin tropomyosin causing it to change it's shape and open up the myosin crossbridge binding site
#8.
the myosin crossbridge immediatly binds and ratchets causing the actin and myosin filaments to slide past one another
#9.
ATP is used to release the actin and myosin and to recock the myosin crossbridge to it's resting state.