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450 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What structures (in order of food passage) compose the long muscular tube of the digestive system?
1. mouth
2. pharynx
3. esophagus
4. stomach
5. small intestine
6. large intestine
7. anus
What are the 4 accessory glands of the digestive system?
1. liver
2. gallbladder
3. pancreas
4. salivary glands
What is the function of all of the accessory glands?
to dump secretions into the digestive tube
What are the 3 functions of the digestive system?
1. break down nutrients into building blocks
2. absorption of nutrients
3. eliminates solid waste material
What 8 structures of the digestive system are in the oral cavity?
1. lips
2. cheeks
3. vestibule
4. teeth
5. tongue
6. hard palate
7. fauces
8. uvula
What is the vestibule?
the opening of the mouth
What are the 2 functions of the cheeks in degestion?
1. mastication
2. to be the sidewalls of the mouth
What type of tissue lines the cheeks?
stratified squamous epithelium
What are the 2 dentitians?
1. deciduous teeth
2. permanent teeth
What is the function of the teeth?
grind and break up food
How do some bacteria make cavities?
by fermenting CHO acid tha wears the enamel away
What type of tissue is the tongue made up of?
skeletal muscle
What are the 3 functions of the tongue?
1. organ of taste
2. phonation
3. keep food between teeth
What attaches the tongue to the base of the mouth?
the frenulum
What is the process that make the hard palate?
the palatine process of the maxillary bones
What are the 2 difficulties that someone born with a cleft palate may have?
1. hard to swallow
2. language development problems
What is the function of the uvula?
to close off the passageway to the nasopharynx when swallowing
What are located between the folds that run laterally to the uvula?
palatine tonsils
What tissue lines the larynx?
stratified squamous epithelium
what are the 3 layers that make up the wall of the digestive tube?
1. tunica mucosa
2. tunica submucosa
3. tunica muscularis
Define Tunica mucosa
innermost of layers with mucous membrane epithelium attached to the basement membrane and then to connective tissue
What juncions are very present in the digesetive tube?
tight junctions to keep material in GI tube
What 2 cells are i the tunica mucosa?
1. enteroendocrine cells
2. glandular cells
Define enteroendocrine cells
hormone-producing cell in the tunica mucosa
What makes up the lamina propria?
aereolar connective tissue that contains many blood and lymph vessels and MALT
Define Tunica submucosa
submucous membrane layer that's composed of aereolar connective tissue
Which layer of the GI tube is the Meissner's plexus associated with?
the tunica submucosa
Define Meissner's plexus or submucosal plexus
nerve plexus made up of millions of neurons.
Which nerve fibers are included in the meissner's plexus?
sympathetic and parasympatheitc nerve fibers (sensory and motor)
What are 3 functions of the tunica submucosa?
1. to regulate movement of mucosa
2. to stimulate glandular cells in mucosa
3. to form enteric nervous system
Define Tunica muscularis
made up of smooth muscle it is the most superficial layer of the GI tube
What are the 2 smooth fibers/layers of the tunica muscularis?
1. longitudinal layer=out
2. circular layer=in
Which plexus is included in the tunica muscularis?
myenteric plexus
what is the function of the myenteric plexus and where is it found?
to control the activity of the smooth muscle fibers; in the tunica muscularis
What is the serous membrane of the GI tube?
what is the largest of the serous membranes?
Define the retroperitoneal
Organs that lie against the posterior cavity wall.
What are the functions of the large folds in the peritoneum?
1. to provide a passageway for lymph and blood vessels and nerves to organs
2. to anchor all organs in place in the abdominopelvic cavity
What are 5 the folds in the peritoneum?
1. mesentery
2. mesocolon
3. falciform
4. lesser omentum
5. greater omentum
Define mesentery fold
fold that forms in the peritoneum in the small intestine that anchors the small intestine to the posterior wall
Define mesencolon
fold that forms peritoneum at large intestine that anchors the large intestine to the posterior cavity wall
Define Falciform ligament
fold that forms peritoneum and attaches liver to anterior cavity wall and diaphragm
Define Lesser omentum
fold that forms at stomach and first part of small intestine (duodenum of small intestine). it suspends stomach and duodenum to liver.
Define greater omentum
largest of folds that forms in the area of the large intestine and small intestine and anchors the large intestine and small intestine to the cavity wall.
What is the "fatty apron"?
greater omentum
Where does the greater omentum hang down?
the anterior aspect of the abdominal cavity
Define peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoneum
Where does the esophagus extend?
between the pharynx and stomach
what is the esophagus posterior to?
the trachea
How does teh esophagus run through the diaphragm?
through the esophageal hiatus
What are 4 modifications of the esophageal wall?
1. no serous membrane covering. instead it's a fibrous connective tissue layer
2. mucosa is stratified squamous epithelium
3. muscle layer superior to esophagus is skeletal but inferior is smooth muscle
4. at the inferior end of the muscle layer is the lower esophageal sphincter or cardiac sphincter
What is the function of the lower esophageal sphincter or cardiac sphincter?
1. regulates passageway from esophagus to stomach
2. prevents material in stomach from moving back into esophagus
What is the function of the esophagus?
to be a simple passageway for food into the stomach
Where does the stomach extend to and from?
from the esophagus to the duodenum
what digestive structure is located right under the diaphragm?
the stomach
How far does the stomach extend and which organ is it located inferiorly?
from the esophagus to the duodenum; under diaphragm
WHat is the function of the stomach?
to store food until the small intestine is able to digest it
WHat shape is the stomach?
a J shape
what are the 3 regions of the stomach?
1. fundus
2. body
3. pyloric region/antrum/pyloric antrum
Define fundus
The region of the stomach that the esophagus empties in to
Define pyloric region or pyloric antrum
the constricted region in the stomach
Define Cardia
Passageway between the esophagus and stomach
Define Pyloric Canal
passageway between the stomach and duodenum
Define lower esophageal sphincter
passageway between esophagus and stomach
Define Pyloric Sphincter
regulates passageway between pyloric region and duodenum
What is a modification in the tunica mucosa of the stomach that helps protect the tunica mucosa from HCL?
the alkaline pH mucous
Define Rugae
large folds of the tunica mucosa that allow the expansion of the tunica mucosa as the stomach fills with food
What is a modification in the tunica mucosa of the stomach that has to do with superficial epithelium?
the superficial epithelium has cloumnar cells and gastric pits that secrete gastric juices
What are the 3 kinds of gastric glands in the superficial epithelium of the stomach in teh tunica mucosa?
1. Zymogen=chief cell
2. Parietal cells
3. Mucous cells
What is the role of zymogen in the superficial epithelium?
to produce pepsinogen that secretes gastric lipase
What is pepsinogen?
an inactive enzyme that's produce by zymogen
What is the role of parietal cells in the superficial epithelium of the stomach?
to secrete HCl and intrinsic factor B12
Which 3 cells are included in the enteroendocrine cells of the stomach?
1. G cells
2. D cells
3. Cells in the Fundus
What is the role of the G cell as an enteroendocrine cell?
to secrete gastrin hormone to make gastric juices and stimulate gastric motility by stimulating smooth muscle in stomach
What is the role of the D cell as an enteroendocrine cell?
to secrete somatostatin that inhibits secretion of gastrin
What is the role of the cells in the fundus?
to secrete hormone called gherlin that stimulates the sensation of hunger
What does gastrin hormone do?
stimulates gastric glands to make gastric juices and stimulates gastric motility
What is the role of somatostatin in the stomach?
to inhibit secretion of gastrin and therefore the making of gastric juices
What are the 3 layers in the tunica muscularis in the stomach?
1. longitudinal layer
2. circular layer
3. oblique layer
How much gastric juice is made everyday in you (about)?
2000-3000 ml
What is the pH of HCl-?
2.5 or 2.0
what type of enzymes do gastric juices have?
protein digesting ones
which nervous system is used in the stomach to control the gastric juices?
autonomic nervous system/parasympathetic nervous system
Does the parasympathetic nervous system increase or decrease SLUD?
What are the 3 phases that control the gastric juices in the stomach?
1. cephalic phase
2. gastric phase
3. intestinal phase
What "turns on" the cephalic phase?
sight of food, smell, and taste
Describe the route that the info passes through during the cephalic phase
1. sendory info to cerebral cortx
2. hypothalamus
3. medulla oblongat
4. vagus nerve
5. submucosal plexus
6. stimulate G cells to secrete gastrin
When does the gastric phase begin?
when food reaches the stomach
What stimulates which glands during the gastric phase?
submucosal plexus stimulates gastric glands to G cells
When does the intestinal phase begin?
when food moves into duodenum
What phase of the gastric juice controls inhibits gastric juice production?
intestinal phase
What do the receptors in the intestinal phase of gastric control produce?
1. secretin hormone
2. cholecytokinin hormone
What is the job of secretin during the intestinal phase of gastric juice control?
to go to the stomach and tell it to stop secreting gastric juices
What is the job of cholecystokinin during the intestinal phase of gastric juice control?
to go to the stomach and tell is to stop sending food down to the duodenum
What is the principal site of chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients?
small intestine
From where to where does the small intestine extend?
from the pyloric region of the stomach and cecum of the large intestine
What are the 3 regions of the small intestine?
1. duodenum
2. jejunum
3. ilium
What is the shortest, widest and most fixed region of the small intestine?
What are the Which artery serves the retroperitoneal of the duodenum?
celiac artery
Where do the secretions come from to the duodenum?
liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
What is the significance of the Brunner's glands in the duodenum of the small intestine?
to secrete mucous that is very rich in HCO3 which buffers the HCl coming from the stomach.
Which artery serves the jejunum of the small intestine?
the superior mesenteric artery
Which valve and which artery serves the ilium of the small intestine?
ileocecal valve and superior mesenteric artery
Define Plicae Circularies
permanent transverse folds in the tunica mucosa
What are the two functions of the plicae circularies?
1. to increase surface area of the tunica mucosa
2. to cause food to churn
Define Villi
finger-like projections into the lumen
what are 2 functions of the villi in the small intestine?
1. to increase surface area of the epithelial layer
2. to utilize lacteal
Define lacteal
blind-ended lymph capillary associated with vascular capillary that functions in the absorption of fat
Define microvilli
projections of the apical surface of the epithelial cells that function in increasing the surface area of the epithelial cells
what are 6 modified cells/tissues in the tunica mucosa of the small intestine?
1. Brunner's glands
2. absorptive cells
3. crypts of Lieberkuhn=intestinal glandular cells
4. enteroendocrine cells
5. paneth cells
6. Peyer's patches
What is the function of the Crypts of Lieberkuhn?
to secrete specific enzymes needed for digestion
Which hormones are secretes from the enteroendocrine cells in the small intestine?
1. secretin
2. CCK=cholecystokinin
3. gastric inhibitory peptide
What are 2 other names for gastric inhibitory peptide?
1. GIP
2. glucose dependent insulinotrpic peptide
what are the 2 functions of gastric inhibitory peptide?
1. to secrete the release of insulin
2. inhibit gastric motility
What is the function of Paneth cells?
to secrete lysozomes that are capable of phagocytosis and aid in protection.
What is the function of the large intestine?
to compact waste material and get rid of it
how long is the large intestine?
about 5 feet long
how does the large intestine attach to the posterior cavity wall?
by the mesocolon
What are the four main regions of the large intestine?
1. cecum
2. colon
3. rectum
4. anus
Where is the cecum attached to the ilium?
at the ileocecal valve
what is the function of the ileocecal valve?
to regulate movement of material from the small to the large intestine.
Define vermiform process and give the other name for it
coil tube that opens into cecum;appendix
What is the function of the cecum?
to collect material from the small intestine and begin to compact it into waste
Which 4 regions is the colon divided into?
1. ascending colon
2. transverse colon
3. descending colon
4. sigmoid colon
Describe the position of the ascending colon
moves upward in the right cavity to the underside of the liver
describe the position of the transverse colon
crosses the cavity from the left to the right
describe the position of the descending colon
moves down left side of the cavity and runs into iliac crest on pelvic girdle
Describe the sigmoid colon
the area of the large intestine that bends around the iliac crest and ends in the rectum
What does each anal column contain?
vein and artery
What type of epithelium is present at the anus?
keratinized epithelium
what are the 2 sphincters of the anus?
1. internal sphincter
2. external sphincter
Describe the internal sphincter of the anus
circular band of smooth muscle in wall of the tube
Describe the external sphincter of the anus
bundles of skeletal muscle around outside of tube
what cells are present in the tunica mucosa of the large intestine?
goblet cells
What are three modifications made in the tunica muscularis of the large intestine?
1. longituinal layer is thickened in 3 bands=taeniae coli
2. haustra are present
3. epiploic appendages are present
Define Haustra
pouch-like structures in the tunica muscularis of the large intestine
Define epiploic appendages (omental appendices)
sacs of the peritoneum that are filled with fat
Where is the parotid gland?
anterior and inferior to the ears
Where are the submandibular glands found?
beneath the base of the tingue
Where are the sublingual glands found?
superior to the submandibulars
How are all of the exocrine glands drained in the oral cavity?
by ducts
what 6 components make up saliva?
1. water
2. electrolytes
3. urea
4. uric acid
5. IgA
6. Enzymes
Which 3 enzymes are in saliva?
1. lysozymes
2. salivary amylase
3. lingual lipase
What is the function of salivary amylase?
to break down starch to maltose
what is the function of lingual lipase?
to break down fat
What control does the Parasympathetic nervous system have on salivation?
it increases it
What control does the sympathetic nervous system have on salivation?
it decreases it
What 3 regions divide the pancreas?
1. head
2. body
3. tail
what are the 2 large ducts of the pancreas?
1. pancreatic duct=duct of Wirsung
2. accessory duct
What does the pancreatic duct empty into when it merges?
the duodenum of the small intestine
Which duct it the larger one, the accessory or the pancreatic duct?
the pancreatic duct
What makes up the exocrine function?
acini and pancreatic juices
Are exocrine or endocrine functions more present in the pancreas?
Define Acini
small clusters of glandular epithelial cells that make up 99% of pancreatic cells and make pancreatic juices
How much pancreatic juice do you make per day?
1 liter
which hormones control pancreatic juices?
1. Secretin
2. CCK
what do pancreatic juices contain?
digestive enzymes
What cells make up the endocrine portion of the pancreas?
pancreatic islets=islets of langerhans
What are the 3 main types of cells in islets?
1. alpha cells
2. beta cells
3. delta cells
What do alpha cells secrete?
What is the function of alpha cells in the pancreas?
to increase blood glucose levels
What is the function of Beta cells in the pancreas?
to decrease blood glucose levels
What do Beta cells secrete?
What do delta cells secrete?
somatostatin=growth hormone-inhibiting hormone
What are 3 functions of delta cells?
1. inhibits activity of growth hormone
2. suppresses secretion of insulin and glucagon
3. slows rate of food absorption and enzyme secretion
Where is the liver located in the abdomen?
under the diaphragm
what are the 2 coverings of the liver?
1. peritoneum
2. dense connective tissue
What 2 lobes does the falciform ligament divide into?
1. right lobe
2. left lobe
Which lobe is the larger of the two falciform lobes?
the right one
what 2 lobes odes the right lobe of the falciform ligament divide into?
1. caudate
2. quadrate
What do all lobes divide into?
hepatic lobules
Define Hepatic Lobules
functional units of the liver
Define Hepatocytes
specialized epithelial cells foundin the liver
How are hepatocytes arranged?
in plates where the center of the plate has a central vein
WHat does the liver have as oppose to capillaries?
Define sinusoids
large, irregular-chaped capillaries with large lumen
What line the sinusoids?
fixed macrophages=kepffer cells=stellate reticuloendothelial cells
What is the function of the stellate reticuloendothelial cells in the liver?
to eliminate old formed elements from the blood and remove garbage absorbed by the digestive tube
What do hepatocytes secrete?
Where is or who makes ANP?
the wall of the atria
What causes ANP to be made?
High blood pressure
What do the left and right hepatic ducts merge to form?
the common hepatic duct
what does the common hepatic duct drain?
bile out of the liver
what duct drains the gallbladder?
the cystic duct
where does the common bile duct empty?
into the duodenum
what are the 3 principal vessels that serve the liver?
1. hepatic artery
2. hepatic portal vein
3. hepatic vein
what is the function of the hepatic artery?
to bring oxygenated blood to the liver
what is the function of the hepatic portal vein?
to drain blood from the digestive tube and bring nutrient rich blood to the liver
what forms the hepatic portal vein?
the mesenteric and splenic veins
What is the function of the hepatic vein?
to drain deoxygenated blood from the liver
what 3 vessels make up the portal triad?
1. branch of the hepatic artery
2. branch of the hepatic vein
3. bile duct
What is the portal triad's function?
to serve the functional unit of the liver by bringing nutrient-rich blood to the liver and carrying off the bile that hepatocytes make
how much bile do you produce per day?
800-1000 ml
what are the 7 components that make up bile?
1. water
2. bile acids
3. bile salts
4. bile pigments
5. cholesterol
6. lecithin
7. electrolytes
What is the most abundant component of bile?
bile salts
what is the only digestive portion of bile?
bile salts
what is the function of bile salt?
to emulsify fat and absorb fat from the small intestine
what is the only bile pigment we talked bout?
when is bilirubin produced?
during the breakdown of heme
what is cholesterol used for in the bile?
it's used for anabolism and to make hormones
What is lecithin in one word?
what do bile salts and lecithin do together in bile?
make cholesterol soluble in water
what is an important electrolyte in bile?
what does secretin stimulate the release of?
what is CCK's job in the gall bladder?
to contract and release bile
What does the liver convert glucose to?
What does the liver convert non-carbs to?
What does the liver convert lactic acid to?
What does the liver convert galactose to?
What does the liver convert excess carbohydrate to?
What does the liver convert excess protein to?
what are 6 sources that the liver makes?
1. cholesterol
2. lipoproteins
3. phospholipids
4. bile
5. heparin
6. plasma proteins
the liver is capable of deamination. what does this mean?
it can remove an amine group from the amino acid
what does the liver convert amino acids into?
ammonia and then urea
define urea
nitrogen-containing waste compound
What compounds is the liver capable of storing?
1. iron
2. copper
3. fat-soluble vitamins
how does penicillin that's processed through the liver leave the body?
through fecal material
which duct serves the gallbladder?
cystic duct
What is the function of the gallbladder?
to store bile when the duodenum is empty
What is the most common component of gallstones?
do men or women get more gallstones?
What is the wet wad of food that was formed by chewing?
What is another word for swallow?
define deglutition
process of moving food from mouth to stomach
What are the 3 phases of swallowing?
1. voluntary phase
2. pharyngeal phase
3. esophageal phase
What occurs during the voluntary phase of swallowing?
the tongue moves the bolus up and back to the oropharynx
what happens during th pharyngeal phase of swallowing?
the bolus reaches receptors in the orapharynx that send impulses to deglutition center in the medulla oblongata. the soft palate and uvula are pulled upwards to close off nasopharynx
What happens during th esophageal phase of swallowing?
bolus moves down the esophagus to the stomach by peristalsis and the esophageal sphincter opens into the stomach
Define peristalsis
waves of contraction
What regulates the squirting of chyme into the duodenum?
regulating gastric emptying
define enterogastric reflex
a reflex that utilizes the vagus nerve and inhibits the PNS and stimulates the SNS to slow down gastric motility
What are 3 hormones that are produced in response to the enterogastric reflex?
1. Secretin
2. CCK
3. GIP
What is secretin's role in the enterogastric reflex?
to inhibit parietal cells and G cells and gastric juices
What is CCK's role in the enterogastric reflex?
to inhibit gastric emptying and inhibit secretion of hydrochloric acid
What is GIP's role in the enterogastric reflex?
to inhibit the production of gastric juices and to reduce gastric motility
How long does it take for a meal to leave the body?
2-4 hours
What are the 2 different waves during the peristalsis of the duodenum of the small intestine?
1. mixing waves
2. migration waves
what does peristaltic rush result in?
Mixing waves churn food with secretions from the ____,_____,____, and ____
wall of duodenum
how do mixing waves make food available for absorption?
by moving the food up against the wall of the small intestine
When do migration waves begin?
after most food has been absorbed
What increases and what decreases migration waves in the small intestine?
PNS increases and SNS decreases speed
What is absorbed in the large intestine?
more water and electrolytes
What is the colon able to be used as?
a place to store material for a while before on through the tract
Which nerve fibers are in the wall of the rectum and what are they used for?
PNS nerve fibers are used for defication reflex
What happens during chemical digestion (in short)?
the digestive system breaks chemical bonds into building blocks that can be absorbed
What does salivary amylase break down?
breaks down starch to maltose
where does lingual lipase work in the body?
the stomach
Why does salivary amylase stop working in the stomach?
because of the low pH. it can't tolerate it.
Which chemical is used in the stomach to break down proteins?
define pepsin
proteolytic enzyme
what does gastric lipase break down?
buttermilk fat
what does pepsin require to do its job?
Define rennin
enzyme that causes milk to curd and slows down the movement of milk to the small intestine
what is the principal site of chemical digestion?
What "asks" bile to come into the duodenum?
Secretin and CCK
what is the only significant fat-digesting enzyme that you have?
pancreatic lipase
What does pancreatic lipase break back down to?
fatty acids and glycerol
what does pancreatic amylase break down?
starch to maltose
what enzyme activates trypsinogen?
enterokinase (also called enteropeptidase)
What activates chymotrypsinogen?
When activated by trypsin, what does procarboxypolypeptidease make?
Protein is activated by what to make what?
trypsin to make peptides and polypeptides
small Proteins are activated by what to make what?
chymotrypsin to make peptides
peptides are activated by what to make what?
carboxyl to make smaller peptides and amino acids
What does peptidase break down?
peptides into amino acids and smaller peptides
what does dipeptidase break down?
small peptides to amino acids
what does sucrase break down?
sucrose to glucose and fructose
what does maltase break down?
maltose to glucose and glucose
what does lactase break down?
lactose to glucose and galactose
is there any absorption of nutrients in the mouth?
is there any absorption of nutrients in the pharynx and esophagus?
is there any absorption of nutrients in the stomach?
yes, but very little
What is absorbed in the stomach?
1. water
2. electrolyte
3. alcohol
4. some drugs
What is the principal site of absorption within the small intestine?
what are the 3 forms of transport mechanisms in the small intestine?
1. diffusion
2. osmosis
3. facilitated diffusion
4. active transport
how are monosaccharides absorbed?
they move from the lumen of the small intestine by active transport or diffusion
what type of transport mechanism do glucose and galactose utilize?
active transport
what is another word for cellulose?
What are amino acids' transport mechanism?
active transport
where are amino acids absorbed?
in the jejunum and duodenum
What are lipids' transport mechanism?
simple diffusion
Define chylomicron
globule of fat with thin protein coating.
What is is that assists in lipid diffusion?
is lipid transported in blood or lymph?
What do you need to get fat globules to lacteal?
bile salts
what are electrolytes' transport mechanism?
active transport mechanism
where are electrolytes absorbed in the small intestine?
the duodenum and jejunum
Which ions do electrolytes follow?
sodium ions
What type of transport does potassium use?
passive transport
What type of transport mechanism do calcium ions use?
active transport
What are 2 hormones that are involved in the active transport of calcium ions?
1. parathyroid hormone
2. calcitriol
What type of transport mechanism does iron use?
active transport
What does vitamin B12 need for absorption?
intrinsic factor
where is most water absorbed in the GI tract?
the small intestine
What does it mean if someone is lactose intolerant?
they can't break down lactose to glucose and galactose because they can't produce lactase
What can the large intestine absorb?
Vitamins, water, and electrolytes
What vitamin do bacteria produce?
Vitamin K
When was the CG 1st tasked with environmental protection duties?
When Congress created a timber reserve for the Navy in 1822
EPME Study Guide p.297
WHat are the 2 principal hormones that drive the hypothalamus?
1. gherlin
2. leptin
Say who produces Gherlin and what it stimulates
1. the stomach
2. stimulates sensation of huger
Say who produces leptin and what it stimulates
1. adipose tissue
2. stimulates sensation of satiety
Trace the steps that are taken when you eat fat to when you feel full
1. eat fat
2. adipose tissue
3. adipocyte
4. secrete leptin
5. hypothalamus
6. neurons in satiety center
7. "i'm full"
what steps are taken after the hypothalamus secretes GnRF?
1. anterior pituitary
2. FSH and LH
Where does FSH go in females?
to the ovary telling it to make estrogen
When you make bonds, you _____ energy
when you break bonds, you ______ energy
Define enzyme
organic catalyst that works on substrates
What are enzymes a type of?
Define cofactor
non-protein portion of an enzyme
Define Coenzyme
Help enzymes do their job but aren't part of the enzyme
Name the 3 coenzymes talked about in class
1. CoA
2. NAD
3. FAD
What is the chemical reaction when using ATP?
ATP-->ADP + Pi + energy
What is the chemical reaction when you are making ATP?
ADP + Pi + energy--> ATP
Define Entropy
All things left on own go to maximum disorder
Define Cellular Respiration
glucose catabolism utilizing oxygen as the final electron acceptor
Give the chemical reaction formula for cellular respiration
What does oxidation mean?
an electron is being taken off
What does reduction mean?
an electron is being picked up
Explain what He- means
it is an electron that's given off in the company of a hydrogen
what is used to take acetyl to oxaloacetic acid?
what do axaloacetic acid and acetyl combine to give off?
citric acid
the electron transport is made up of electron _____ that can take the ____ and convert it to____
1. acceptors
2. He-
3. ATP
what is Pi?
organic phosphate
What does cellular respiration yield in the end?
CO2, H2O, and ATP
what is the yield of glycolysis?
2 ATP and 3 carbon molecule
where does the krebs cycle occur in the cell?
What creates the citric acid in aerobic cellular respiration?
the combination of acetyl and oxaloacetic acid in the krebs cycle
What gives off the CO2 in cellular respiration?
as citric acid returns to oxaloacetic acid, CO2 is given off on the way
When the glucose gets to the pyruvic acid in anaerobic cellular respiration, what happens?
oxygen isn't available so pyruvic acid gets converted into lactic acd
What do you end with in anaerobic cellular respiration?
2 molecules of pyruvic acid and 2 molecules of lactic acid
Where is the only place that you get ATP form in anaerobic cellular respiration?
What are the 3 monosaccharides?
1. glucose
2. fructose
3. galactose
Where are all of the monosaccharides brought to after being absorbed?
the liver
What are the monosaccharides converted to when in the liver?
to glucose
Define Glycogenesis
the formation of glycogen
If you are not in need of carbohydrates at the moment then how will they be stored?
as glycogen
Where is glycogen stored in the body?
in skeletal muscle fibers and the liver
What hormone stimulates glycogenesis?
Define Glycogenolysis
breakdown of glycogen to glucose
What stimulates glycogenolysis?
Define Gluconeogenesis
formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (protein or fat)
What must fat be broken down to?
glycerol and fatty acids
After gluconeogenesis, glycerol gets broken down to _____ 3 _____ inside the ______.
1. glyceraldehyde
2. phosphate
3. liver
What is the use of glycerol after gluconeogenesis?
to make glucose
what is fatty acid made into by beta oxidation?
2 carbon fragments
What happens to the deaminated amino acid when it is being metabolized?
it makes pyruvic acid
What does gluconeogenesis do to blood glucose levels?
increases the levels
What is the principal hormone used for metabolism of fat and proteins?
What is cortisol an example of?
What secretes cortisol (a structure)?
adrenal cortex
how does cortisol work on fats/proteins?
by stimulating the breakdown of fat and protein to building block form
Name 4 hormones that stimulate gluconeogenesis
1. thyroxine
2. epinephrine
3. growth hormone
4. glucagon
WHat are lipids broken down into?
fatty acids and glycerol
How is a lipid made water soluble?
by coating the lipid with protein to make a lipoprotein
How are the lipoproteins divided into separate categories?
based on density
Define Chylomicron
made in epithelial cells of the villi in the small intestine. it contains exogenous fat.
What is exogenous fat?
dietary fat
Where are chylomicrons stored?
in adipose tissue
What makes the fat in Very Low Density Lipoproteins?
hepatocytes from excess glucose or protein.
what is endogenous fat?
fat that your body makes
What is the function of VLDLs?
to transport triglycerides from the liver to adipose tissue
Give the percentages of the following in Low density lipoproteins: cholesterol, protein, fat
1. 50%
2. 25%
3. 25%
What is the function of LDL?
to transport cholesterol to the body cells to use in anabolism
What happens when LDLs are found in excess in your body?
they are deposited in and around smooth muscle fibers in walls of arteries to create plaque:/
How much of HDL is made of proteins?
How much of HDL is made of cholesterol?
What is the function of high density lipoproteins?
to remove excess cholesterol from body cells and transport cholesterol back to the liver so it can be excreted
Define cholesterol
a fat made by the liver
Define Lipolysis
the breakdown of fat
Why is it necessary for lipolysis to occur?
so you can make energy/ATP
what are the 2 routes that lipolysis can take after fatty acids are converted into beta oxidation?
1. 2 carbon fragment
2. ketogenesis
Glycerol-->_______ __ ________-->gluconeogenesis
glycerolaldehyde 3 phosphate
What are the ketones?
Keto acid and acetone
Where is secretin made?
in the duodenum
Where is CCK made?
in the duodenum
What 2 hormones stimulate the increase of blood glucose levels?
1. glucagon
2. cortisol
Define lipogenesis
lipid anabolism
What are we making fat from if lipogenesis is occurring?
excess glucose or excess amino acids
during lipogenesis what does the excess glucose get broken down to?
G3P to glycerol
What transports triglycerides to adipose tissue?
What is the function of lipogenesis?
to reduce blood glucose levels
Which hormone stimulates lipgenesis?
How is protein broken down during lipogenesis?
breaks down to amino acids and then gets its amine group taken aaway
Where are all proteins transferred to after they have been broken down to amino acids?
the liver
Where does deamination occur?
the liver
What are the 2 options for deaminated protein to be used for?
1. to make ATP at the liver
2. be used in gluconeogenesis(to make glucose)
Define transamination
converting one amino acid to another kind of amino acid
What does it mean if something is a non-essential amino acid?
means that your liver makes it by transamination so you don't have to include it in your diet
What are the 6 important hormones of metabolism?
1. insulin
2. glucagon
3. growth hormone
4. glucocorticoids
5. epinephrine/norepinephrine
6. thyroxine
Which cells make insulin?
beta cells
What is the function of insulin?
to decrease blood glucose levels
What does insulin stimulate in order to lower blood glucose levels?
1. glycogenesis
2. lipogenesis
What does insulin inhibit in order to lower blood glucose levels?
1. glycolysis
2. gluconeogenesis
3. lipolysis
4. ketogenesis
How does insulin stimulate protein synthesis?
1. it increases cellular uptake of amino acids
2. it activates potassium pump
Which cells make glucagon?
alpha cells of the pancreas
what does glucagon stimulate in order to increase blood glucose levels?
1. gluconeogenesis
2. glycolysis
3. lipolysis
4. ketogenesis
what does glucagon inhibit in order to increase glucose levels in the blood?
1. glycogenesis
2. cellular uptake of glucose
what structure makes growth hormone?
anterior pituitary
what does growth hormone stimulate?
1. lipolysis
2. ketogenesis
3. gluconeogenesis
4. protein synthesis
What do glucocorticoids stimulate?
What is the principal glucocorticoid hormone?
when is cortisol scereted (3)?
1. exercise
2. stress
3. fasting
cortisol_____protein synthesis
Who makes epinephrine?
adrenal medulla
What does epinephrine do to glucose levels in the blood?
increases them
What does epinephrine stimulate?
1. gluconeogenesis
2. glycolysis
Who makes thyroxine?
thyroid gland
What is the function of thyroxine?
to regulate the rate of cellular respiration in all of your cells
thyroxine _____protein synthesis
thyroxine regulates _______ utilization
Nutrient requirements of any cell depends on the _________ that the cell is capable of producing?
What are the 5 metabolic components?
1. liver
2. adipose tissue
3. skeletal tissue
4. neural tissue
5. peripheral tissue
which organ is the focal point for all metabolism?
What is the liver capable of breaking down?
Any carbohydrate, lipid, or amino acid in the body
what does skeletal muscle store?
what does skeletal muscle make ATP from?
glucose, glycogen, protein from it's own muscle fibers
Neural tissue must have a continual supply of _______because is has no _____ ________
1. glucose
2. stored reserves
Peripheral tissue is capable of utilizing _____, ___ _____, or other substances to make ATP
glucose, fatty acids
When is your body in the absorptive state?
when you have recently eaten
when is the body in the postabsorptive state?
when there is nothing in the stomach to absorb
About how long does a typical meal take to be absorbed?
4 hours
glucose and triglycerides are _(high/low)_ during the absorptive state
insulin levels are _____er to ______er glucose levels
high; low
what does the liver convert excess glucose to?
triglycerides or glycogen
What does the liver use the amino acids to make if the amino acid levels are high?
plasma proteins or they will undergo deamination to be converted to fat
which components are made in response to insulin production?
1. glycogen
2. triglycerides
What should your blood glucose level be?
70-110 mg/100 ml blood
red blood cells are able to produce ATP ______
what happens to insulin production during the post absorptive stat?
they go down.
When you are using glucose sparingly (in the body) which cells get the glucose first?
neural tissue and RBCs
what prevents glucose from moving into any cells except for neural tissue and RBCs?
During the oxidation of fatty acids, what is used to make ATP?
Which cells are also being used to make ATP during the oxidation of amino acids?
During the oxidation of glycogen, what are used to make ATP?
skeletal muscle fibers
As glucose goes down, what happens to insulin?
it goes down
as glucose goes down, what happens to glucagon?
it goes up
Define Anti-insulin hormone
a hormone that functions in post absorption and its effects are opposite of insulin
Name 3 Anti-insulin hormones
1. glucagon
2. cortisol
3. epinephrine
What is the principal function of glucagon?
to break down glycogen
Where are the receptors for glucose found in the body?
in the hypothalamus
Which nervous system controls the hypothalamus?
sympathetic nervous system
What term is used for "no food for days"
what term is used for "no food for weeks"
what determines how long you can go without food?
the amount of adipose tissue you have
what happens to blood glucose levels during starvation?
they drop drastically
what happens to insulin during starvation?
it isn't present
by the second day of starvation what happens to fatty acids?
increase 4x
by the second day of starvation what happens to blood glucose level?
it goes down to about 65 mg glucose/100 ml blood
What happens to the ketones during starvation?
they build up so that pH goes down and ketacidosis occurs