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113 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cerebrum has:
convolutions: foldings (ridges and valleys) on surface to increase surface area
groove- shallow= sulcus, deep=fissure
longitudinal fissure
divides cerebrum into right and left hemisphere
transverse fissure
separates cerebrum and cerebellum
each hemisphere has 5 lobes
frontal, parietal (separated by central sulcus)
temporal (separated by lateral fissure)
insula- only lobe not visible from surface- pull areas apart at lateral fissure to see
Regions of the cerebrum
-cerebral cortex- outer surface, gray matter 2-4mm thick, 6 layers of neurons
-white matter of cerebrum- under cortex
-cerebral nuclei (basal ganglia)- clusters of gray matter that are stuck w/in white matter
cerebral cortex
motor areas, sensory areas, multimodal association areas
motor areas
control voluntary motor
sensory areas
interpret incoming sensory
multimodal association areas
more complex activities
motor areas of the cerebral cortex
all in front lobe:
primary motor cortex
premotor cortex
broca's area frontal eye field
primary motor cortex
controls voluntary motor function thruout most of body
-located on gyrus anterior to central sulcus "pre-central gyrus"
-specific groups of neurons on primary motor cortex control specific muscle groups
-"Motor homunculus"- map of primary motor cortex areas w/finer motor control have more area on the motor homunculus
-axons from primary motor cortex to pryamids of medulla. if area is damaged, lose control of body on opp side. mo movement
motor homunculus
map of primary motor cortex areas w/ finer motor control have more areas on here
premotor cortex
anterior to primary motor cortex
-memory band for skilled motor events
-learned motor events (bike, write, instrument)
if damaged, can still move just find, but don't have memory of motor events. can be re-learned
*know how to type name
broca's area
one side only, 90% of us on left, motor speech area
-coordinates motor movementss for speech (mouth, tongue, lips, larynx, lungs)
-can think it, but not physically say it
frontal eye field
voluntary movement of the eyes
-if damaged, can't control the eye movement
sensory areas/sensory association areas of the cerebral cotex
areas (experience, interpret incoming sensory info) association (comprehend. store memories associated w/ specific sensation. allow interpretation of info based on memories)
-primary somatosensory cortex
-somatosensory association cortex
-primary visual cortex
-visual assocation area
-primary auditory cortex
-auditory association area
-primary gustatory cortex
-primary olfactory cortex
-equilibrium cortex
-visceral sensory/association cortex
primary somatosensory cortex
located on gyrus posterior to central sulcus
"post central gyrus"
-receives and interprets incoming somatic sensory info (from skin, muscles, bones, joints)
-localized it. tells where in the body
-specific neurons receive somatic sensory info from specific body regions
"Sensory homunculus"- mapping of it
face and hands have more neurons than areas that are less sensitive
more sensitive= more neurons receive or interpret any info from area
somatosensory association cortex
post, to primary somatosensory cortex
-parietal lobe
-stores memories of previous somatic sensory events, interprets incoming based on memory
keys or coin pocket. cat tell if cat or dog when feeling. can still feel if damaged, but no memory of what it is
primary visual cortex
most posterior part of the occipital lobe receives/interprets incoming visual info
-you see
visual association area
in occipital lobe
-stores memories previous visual events, interprets incoming based on memory
-you comprehend what you see
primary auditory cortex
temporal lobe
receives/interprets incoming auditory info
auditory association area
stores memory of previous auditory events, allows you to interpret incoming based on memory
-allows you to comprehend what you hear
-know mom's voice
-works strongly with another area
primary gustatory cortex
located in insula (tucked inside)
receives/interprets taste infor
primary olfactory cortex
medial aspect of temporal lobe
-receives and interprets smell info
equilibrium cortex
conscious awareness of balanced (falling, etc.)
doesn't regulate balance tho
visceral sensory/ association area
receives and interprets conscious sensory info from guts (pee, throw up, tummy ache)
-stores memory of previous visceral sensations (events)
multimodal association areas of cerebral cortex
-more complex brain functions
-typically receive info from several other brain regions, process info, send info to several other areas
Wernicke's area
affective language association area
pre frontal cortex
posterior association area
Wernicke's area
-temporal lobe
-one side only, 90% of pop on left
language comprehension area
-understand what you hear
-understand spoken and written language
-also allows you to mentally formulate coherent speech
(works w/auditory area)
affective language association area
one side, 90% of pop on right
emotional speech area
allows you to use tone of voice
use body language, facial expression, tone, and intensity of voice to understand and communicate emotional content of speech
pre fronatl cortex (anterior association area)
the most anterior part of frontal lobe
-one of the most complec regions of brain
-memory, intelligence, personality, reasoning, judgement, abstract thinking, conscience, ability to understand consequences of actions. motivation
=mature slowly in children
=part are very dependent on the environment
posterior association area
most in temporal and occipital lobes
stores complex memories associated w/ sensation
makes decisions based on memory
receives and evaluates info from several sensory areas
-all sensation areas go here. evaluates situation, makes decisions based on info gets
2.responsibility for spacial perceptions- orients you and your surroundings in space
3.gives you identity that your body is your. awareness
amorphosynthesis= not recognizing half of your body as yours
not recognizing half of your body as yoours
posterior association area
hemisphere laterilaztion of cereberal cortex
left= sensory and motor on rt. science and math skills.
reasoning, logic. 90% written and spoken language. includes sign language.

right= sensory and motor on left
90% emotional language area
free spirited. creativity, imagination, artistic and musical ability.

physiological dominance= dominant for language
White matter of cerebrum
commisural fibers- carry info one hemi to other hemi
corpus collosum- largest bundle of commisural fibers, at base of longitudinal fissure
projection fibers- carry info cerebral cortex back and forth to lower brain, spinal cord
association fibers- place place w/in the same hemi
cerebral (basal) nucluei (basal ganglia) of cerebrum
paired masses of gray matter buried in white matter of cerebrum
-includes corpus striatum nucleus
-subconscious/ semiconscious regulation of skeletal muscle
-muscle tone (slight state of contraction)
-decrease unwanted muscle movements (rigidity, tremor)
-initiating and terminating movements
-regulating intensity stereotypical movements
-positioning for more discrete movements
Parkinson's= insufficient dopamine to basal ganglia
posterior to brain stem
2 hemis
gray matter outsite, white matter inside
small covolutions on surface
subconscious motor activity- balance, coordination, and posture
"comparator"- compares present location w/desired location, decides force, direction, and degree of muscle cx to go from present to desired location
maintaining balance and posture, having coordinated movements, w/out overshot
ataxia- uncoordinated movements, lose balance, slurred speech
alocohol causes ataxia- compresses CNS
functional brain systmes
interconnected neurons that are found in many areas of the brain
work together to carry out specific functions
-reticular activating system
-limbic system
reticular activating system
interconnected neurons in medulla, pons, midbrain, thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebrum
-determine level of alertness
-active when asleep, wake up, during day
-regulates amt of into that gets to cerebrum
more info to cerebrum to more cerebral activity to higher level of consciousness
time to go to sleep- RAS neurons inhibitied , decrease info to cerebrum. IPSP generated
wake- RAS neurons stimulated, easier to reach threshold more impulses to cerebrum EPSPS genereated
limbic system
emotional brain
regulates emotional aspects of behavior, especially those associated w/survival
affection, joy, pleasure, pain, anger, aggression, sexual desire, etc. FEAR
-interconnected neurons in thalumus, hypothalumus, epithalumus, medial aspect of cerebrum
connected to other areas, prevents us from acting on emotions the whole time
3 layers CT around brain
function: protect brain, vessels, from partitions in skull, enclose circulating cerebrospinal fluid
Dura mater
tough, white CT around brain, outermost layer meninges
2 layers- outer periosteal dura mater, inner meningeal dura matar : infused together over most of brain
few areas where space btw 2 dura mater . layers = dural sinuses, they function as veins b/c collect deoxy blood. superior sagittal sinus
3 areas where meningeal dura matar folds inward- forms partitions in skulll
1.falx cerebri: btw cerebral hemis, attaches to crista galli (ethmoid). = helps prevent lateral movement of brain
2. falx cerebelli btw cerebellar hemis, attaches to occipital bone, helps prevent lateral movement of brain
3.tentorium cerebelli- btw cerbrum and cerebellum, attaches to occipital bones. = helps to support cerebellum in the back
soft, cottony layer
pia mater
transparent, attaches to brain surface
b/t dura mater and arachnoid
subdural space
serous fluid
subarachnoid space + cerebrospinal fluid
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
clear, colorless
found in subarachnoid space around brain and spinal cord, central canal of spinal cord, found in the 4 ventricals in brain
cavities filled w/cerebr. fluid
Charoid plexuses
filter blood and produce CSF
-network of capillaries covered by ependyemal cells (ep. cells joinedy by tight junctions)
1 charoid plexuses in each ventricle
tight junctions
cell prevents movement btw cells. they are "zipped" and are selective, all materials have to go thru. It forms blood-CSF barrier
lateral ventricles (1 and 2)
-one in each cerebral hemi
-one backwar "c" shape
-charoid plexuses here produce ~80% of CSF
-septum pellucidium membrane separates 2 cerebral hemis
-CSF goes thru choroid plexuses
interventricular foramen (3rd ventricle)
slit-like space btw2 halves of thalamus
-more CSF produced here
cerebral aqueduct (midbrain)
after 3rd ventricle
4th ventricle
btw cerebellum and brainstem more CSF produced
1. subarachnoid space
2.central canal of spinal cord
functions of cerebro fluid
1.cushion, shock absorber
2.brain is floating, it decreases the effective weight of the brain 97%, so it prevents neurons from being crushed
what happens to extra CSF
returned toblood at arachnoid granulations fingerlike projections of arachnoid to thru meningeal dura mater into superior sagital sinus
still produce CSF even if blocke, then will accumulate usually in ventricles
can push skull bones apart over 18 months, puts pressure on brain, so can get brain brain damage
tx: shunt- tube taht goes from ventricles down to abdominal cavity to allow excess fluid to drain
blood supply to/from brain
blood brain barrier
2 pairs of arteries carry blood to brain
Internal carotid arters= travel up front of neck- enter skull thru carotid canals (temporal bones)
vertebral arteries- go up the transverse formina of cerebral vertebrae to enter skull thru foramen magna of occipital bone
once inside skull to unite to form basilar artery
carotid arteries and basilar artery joined by "communicating arteries" into circle of arteries at base of cerebrum ="cerebro-arterial circle"
advantage: if 1 artery is partially blocked, all areas of the cerebrum still receive some blood

branching off cerebro-arterial circle are 3 prs arteries carry blood to cerebrum. anterior, middle, posterior cerebral arteries
all veins in the brain empty into dural sinuses to which empty into internal jugular veins to which exit skull cavity thru jugualr foramina (btw occipital and temporal bones) to empty into subclavian veins
blood brain barrier
capillaries restrict what leaves the blood and empty into cavities.
cells forming cap. wall joined by tight junctions and cap. completely surrounded by extensions of astrocytes
regulates movement materials blood to brain
astrocyte feet
secrete substances causing cells in cap. walls to form tight junctions
fat soluble
substances can cross very easily (fat sol sub can go anywhere in body)
for water soluble
substances, there has to be carrier molecules for them to move blood to brain
in babies
blood brain barrier not fully developed. newborns- bilirubin can cross blood brain barrier
if bilirubin level high can cause brain damage
hight bilirubin= jaundice. due to breakdwon of red blood cells excreted by liver.
1.increase what kid is eating
2. use bili lights- blue wavelenghts of light will break down bilirubing
spinal cord
begins at foramen magnum- extends to 2nd lumbar vertebra
-diameter of thumb
*enlargement due to more motor nueron cell bodies to carry motor info to arms and legs
31 pairs spinal nerves( exit thru intevertebral foramina
8 prs cervical nerves
12 prs thoracic
5 prs lumbar (exit thru sacral foramina)
1 pr coccygeal (exit thru sacral hiatus)
around spinal cord same 3 layers as around brain, continuous w/meninges of brain
dura mater
meningeal dura mater only
dense CT
epidural space- outside dura mater and btw vertebrae (bone) : filled w/ fat, spinal nerves pass thru
-subdural space, serous fluid
-subarachnoid space- cebrospinal fluid
pia mater
attaches tightly to surface of spinal cord
spinal tap (lumbar puncture)
needle is inserted into CSF (thru dura mater and arachnoid) in sbubarachnoid space around spinal cord to add something to CSF, like anesthetic (spinal anesthetic) dye, antibiotics, etc.
OR to remove CSF for diagnosis
usually down btw l3 and l4
*spinal cord stops at l2, so there is no risk of injury to spinal cord
RISKS: infection in CSF
-leakage of CSF to decrease pressure of CSF around brain- "spinal headaches"
Tx for leakage: "blood patch" : 3ml of patients blood, put blood in causes blood clots, seals leaking (outside dura mater)
EPIdural anesthetic- injected into epidural space
-decreases risk of CSF injection and leakage-affects sensory neurons more than motor neurons
adv: labor
disadb:takes longer to take affect (15-20min)
-sometimes gives spotty anesthesia rather than complete
spinal cord in cross section
has gray matter and white matter
posterior horn: gray neuron cell bodies of sensory neurons. receive incoming sensory info, send to brain
anterior horn: cell bodies somatic motor neurons. receive info from brain to send to skeletal muscles
lateral horn: cell bodies autonomic motor neurons. receive info from brain to send to heart muscle. smooth muscle and glands
white mater of cross section
surrounds gray matter
"tracts"- bundles of myelinated fibers. all axons in a tract have same origin and destination
ascending tracts- carry info frombrain down spinal cord. sensory
descending tracts- carry info from brain down spinal cord. carry motor info
most tracts arenaemd by origin and destination
ascendign somatosensory pathways
involved with conscious perception of sensation
-primary (first order) neuron- carries info from sensory receptor to spinal cord or brain
-secondary (second order) neuron- carries info up the spinal cord all the way to thalumus
-tertiary (3rd order- from thalamus to somatosensory cortex
descending somatic motor pathways
regualte skeletal muscle function
-upper mottor neurons- originate in brain (usually cerebral cortex); send info to lower motor neurons
-lower motor neurons- neuron cell body in brain or spinal cord to axon travels to skeletal muscles
Direct descend somatic motor pathways
voluntary control skeletal muscle: upper motor neurons in cerebral cortex descend directly to the lower motor neurons
lower motor neurons carry info to skeletal muscles. "pyramidal pathway" (axons form pyramids of medulla)
indirect descend
somatic motor pathways
semiconscious/subconscious control skeletal muscle
balance/coordination/posture/ decrease unwanted motor movement
"extraphyramidal" pathways b/c nerve fibers are outside the pyramids
multiple synapses (move indirectly)
-neurons in cerebral cortex synapse w/other neurons in brain
before info makes it to lower motor neurons(carry info to skeletal muscles)
"extrapyramidal symptoms side effects- sticking tongue out...
The Peripheral nervous system
everything outside the brain and spinal cord
43 prs of nerves, carry info btw CNS and body
12 prs cranial nerves (originate in spinal cord
31 prs spinal nerves: originate in spinal cord
made of many (classified according to type) axons. enclosed in CT
sensory nerves
all axons in nerve only carry sensory inffo
motor nerves
all axons carry motor info
somatic motor nerves
motor info to skeletal muscle
carry motor info to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
mixed nerves-
some axons carry sensory, some carry motor
Cranial nerves
1. olfactory nerves
originate in olfactory epithelium (roof of nasal cavity)
axons travel thru cribiform plate (ethmoid)
synapse w/olfactory bulg to travel to olfactory tracts to cerebrum
2.optic nerves
originate in back of eyeballs go thru optic canal (sphenoid) to join at optic chiasma (info from the medial aspect of each eye will cross to the opposite side
*only purpose is vision
*info travels down optic tracts to thalamus to cerebrum
3.oculomotor nerves
nerves innervates 4 of 6 muscles moving eyeball, eyelid, to smooth muscle controlling pupil diameter, change shape of lens (focusing)
goes thru superior orbital fissure of sphenoid bone
proprioception- a sense of position (f eyes closed, still know which way we are looking)
*if proprioception is only sensory, then mortor
*somatic motor, autonomic motor function
4. trochlear nerves
carry info to 1 of 6 muscles that move eyeball
-all go thru sup orb fiss
*somatic motor nerve
5.trigeminal nerves
largest of cranial nerves. facial sensation, sensory, chewing
3 branches:
1.opthalmic branch: thru sup orb fiss. carries sensory from eye to upper forehead (somatic sesn info)
2.maxillary branch: thru foramen rotundum (sphenoid),maxillary region part of nose (somatic sensory from nasal cavity: hot/cold on nose, congested)
3.mandibular branch: thru foramen ovale (sphenoid) som sens from mouth and lower jaw
(burn roof of mouth, etc) motor to muscles involved in chewing
6. abducens nerves
innervates 1 of 6 muscles that move eye ball
-pass thru sup orb fissure
MOTOR: somatic only
7.facial nerves
motor to muscle facial expression. 2 of 3 prs salivary glands, lacrimal gland (tears, taste sensation anterior. submandibular.sublingual
MIXED nerve, both somatic and autonomic motor
8.vestibulo- cochlear (auditory)
-goes thru internal accousitc meatus (temporal)
-sensory- hearing and balance from inner ear
9.glossopharyngeal nerves
thru jugular foramen (b/t temporal and occipital boens)
-swallowing(3 nerves. throat), salivation (parotid glands, taste sensation (poseriro 1/3 tongue)
autonomic, salivating glands
10. vagus nerves
thru jugular foramen
-only cranial nerves not limited to head and neck
-subconscious sensory (abt how organ is functionning) from and motor to viscera
-motor to the throat for swallowing, to larynx for speaking(auto, guts)
11. Accessory (spinal accessory)nerves-
thru jugular foramen and foramen magnum
-motor to sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles
Motor: somatic: skeletal mus
12. hypoglossal nerves
travel thru hypoglossal canal of occipital bone
-carry motor info to tongue for speaking and swallowing
Motor( somatic b/c tongue is skeletal mus)
SPinal nerves
c1-c8 cervical
t1-t12 thoracic
l1-l5 lumbar
s1-s5 sacral
c0 coccygeal
cluster of neuron cell bodies in PNS
3 sensory nerves
olfactory, optic, vestibulo-cochlear
4 autonomic nerves
oculomoto, facial, glassopharyngeal, vagus
posterior root ganglia
cell bodies sensory neurons, unipolar sensory
posterior root
incoming sensory info only
anterior root
outgoing info only
spinal nervs
have post and anter root, thus all spinal nerves are mixed nerves
travel in costal groove (groove under each rib)
-sensory from and motor to skin, skeletal muscles bones, and joints of thoracic wall, upper abdominal wall
"intercostal nerves"
network of nerves
cervical plexus
sensory from skin posterior head and neck. motor to few neck muscles
diaphragm (phrenic nerve)
-moves diaphragm for breathing
phrenic nerve is essential for normal breathing
brachial plexus
sensory from and motor to skin, skeletal muscles, bones, joints of arm and shoulder
lumbar plexus
sensory from and motor to skin, skeletal muscles, bones, and joints of the anterior and medial thigh, medial calf, hip and knee joints, lower abdominal wall
sacral plexus
sensory from and motor to skin, skeletal muscles, bones and joints
buttocks, posterrior and lateral thigh, most of lower leg and foot, parts of external genitals (penis and clitoris)
coccygeal plexus
s5 and coccygeal nerves
sensory from skin at tailbone and a little bit of skin at pelvic floor