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60 Cards in this Set

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What type of viscera is characterised by a lumen surrounded by a mucous membrane then a wall of smooth muscle.

Tubular viscera

What type of viscera are glands that secrete into a duct and/or secrete into the blood stream?

Solid viscera

What type of glands secrete into a duct?

Exocrine glands

What type of glands secrete into the blood stream?

Endocrine glands

Name some solid viscera that have dual exocrine and endocrine functions.

liver


pancreas


kidney

Do paired viscera have bilateral or unilateral neurovascular supply?

Paired viscera each receive a separate set of vascular and nerve supply lines

Do unpaired viscera have bilateral or unilateral neurovascular supply?

Unpaired viscera receive vascular supply from the midline but receive bilateral nerve supply lines.

Where does pain from unpaired viscera refer to?

the midline


reflects their bilateral nerve supply

Where do paired viscera receive their arterial supply from?

the corresponding side of the abdominal aorta

Where do unpaired viscera receive their arterial supply from?

the front of the abdominal aorta

What is contained in layer 1 of viscera on posterior abdominal wall (from anterior to posterior)?

Paired viscera

What is contained in layer 2 of viscera on posterior abdominal wall (from anterior to posterior)?

Unpaired viscera without a mesentery

What is contained in layer 3 of viscera on posterior abdominal wall (from anterior to posterior)?

Paired viscera

Where is the subcostal plane located?

the level of the lower extremity of the costal margin


10th costal cartilage


intervertebral disc between 2nd and 3rd lumbar vertebrae

Where is the transtubercular plane?

the level of the tubercle on each iliac crest


intervertebral disc between 4th and 5th lumbar vertebrae

What level is the xiphisternum at?

T9

What level is the umbilicus at?

L3-4 IV disc

What level is the pubic symphysis at?

Tip of coccyx

What are the midline surface regions?

epigstric


umbilical


suprapubic

What are the lateral surface regions?

subcostal


lumbar


iliac fossa

What levels are the epigastric and subcostal regions in front of?

T9-L2

What levels are the umbilical and lumbar regions in front of?

L3-L4

What levels are the suprapubic and iliac fossae regions in front of?

L5 to the coccyx

The abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava, cysterna chyli, kidneys, ureters and adrenal glands are part of what layer?

Layer 1

The duodenum, ascending colon, descending colon and pancreas are part of what layer?

Layer 2

The mesogastrium, mesentery and transverse mesocolon are part of what layer?

Layer 3

What level is the aortic orifice in the diaphragm at?

T12

What level does the abdominal aorta terminate into the common iliac arteries?

L4

What level does the celiac artery originate?

T12/L1

What level does the superior mesenteric artery originate?

L1

What level does the inferior mesenteric artery originate?

L3

What level does the renal arteries originate?

L1/L2

What level does the gonadal arteries originate?

L2

What level is the vena naval orifice in the diaphragm located?

T8-T9

What level does the IVC original with the union of the common iliac veins?

L5

What level is the cistern chyli located?

L1-L2

What level are the adrenal glands located at?

T12

What levels are the three parts of the duodenum located at?

first part--L1


second part--L2


third part--L3

Where does the ascending colon extend from?

right iliac fossa to liver

Where does the descending colon extend from?

front of the left kidney at the splenic flexure to the pelvic brim on the left

Where does the the head of the pancreas lie?


What level?

In the concavity of the duodenum at L2

What level does the neck of the pancreas lie?

L1-L2

What level does the body of the pancreas lie?

L1

What level is the fundus of the gallbladder located?

L1-L2

Which ribs overlie the diaphragmatic surface of the spleen?

9th, 10th, 11th

Name 3 situations affect the position of viscera.

posture


phase of respiration


pregnancy

Name 3 reasons for normal variations in position of abdominal viscera.

age


sex


body build

What is the transpyloric plane?

anteriorly--midway between xiphisternum and umbilicus--where line semilunaris cross the costal margin




posteriorly--level of intervertebral disc between the 1st and 2nd lumbar vertebrae

What are the events that happen at the transpyloric plane?

layer 1--hila of kidneys and renal vessels & cistern chyli




layer 2--neck of pancreas & origin of portal vein




layer 3--fundus of gallbladder & termination of pylorus of stomach




termination of the spinal cord

Where are the taeniae coli located?

caecum

Where is the based of the appendix located?

the junction of the 3 taeniae coli

What is characteristic of the ascending, transverse and descending colong?

taenia coli


haustra

What anatomical lobe are the caudate and quadrate lobes located in?

anatomical right

What physiological lobe are the caudate and quadrate lobes located in?

physiological left

What is the narrowest part of the gallbladder?

at its termination

Where does the portal system begin and terminate?

beginning--behind the neck of the pancreas




termination--porta hepatis

Which lymph nodes drain the unpaired viscera?

pre-aortic

Which lymph nodes drain the paired viscera and lymph from most of the pelvis and lower limbs?

para-aortic

Where is lymph from the abdominal cavity collected?

cysterna chyli

What does the azygos system connect?

IVC and SVC