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106 Cards in this Set

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electrocardiogram


record electrical activities of heart


evaluate heart attacks arrhythmias heart failure hypertrophy, damage to muscle

arteriosclerosis

may form fatty tissue mass (plaque) in vessel that restricts blood flow


tx: balloon angioplasty


coronary artery disease


produces reduced blood flo, blod clot,


tx: stent

total peripheral resistance

resistance of entire cardiovascular system,


must be overcome by sufficient pressure from the heart


depends on:


vascular resistance


viscosity


turbulence

vascular resistance


results from friction between blood and vessel walls


factors:


Length (directly related)


diameter (inversely related )


lymphatic system functions


drains excess interstitial fluid


transports dietary lipid


carry out immune responses (defend disease)

Innate or nonspecific immunity

no specific recognition of invaders nomemory component

adaptive or specific immunity

specific recognition of invaders with a memory component
lymphatic capillaries


slightly large diameter than blood capillaries


one-way structure


interstitial fluid flow in but not out



lacteals


specialized lymphatic capillaries


carry lipids from the diet into lymphatic vessels, lymph draining from the small intestine has lipids looks creamy white (chyle lymph with lipids)

superficial lymphatics

subcutaneous layer deep to skin

deep lymphatics

accommodate deep arteries and veins supplying skeletal muscles and other torso organs
right lymphatic duct

drains lymph from right arm, right upper torso, right head and neck
thoracic duct

drains lymph from rest of body

lymphedema


blockage of lymphatic drainage


interstitial fluids accumulate and affected area swells


seen in limbs

primary lymphatic organs


sites where stem cells divide and become immunocompetent


red bone marrow and thymus

secondary lymphatic organs

sites where most immune response occurs

tonsilitis

inflammation of tonsils
palatine/ lingual

paired
pharyngeal
adenoid single tonsil

thymus


outer cortex medulla


shrinks with age 70g in infants 3g old age

capsule

surrounds lymph node

trabeculae

eextend into the lymph node
reticular fibers

help form the supporting framework of lymp node
metastasis

spread

breast cancer

axillary lymph nodes

cancerous lymph nodes

enlarged firm nontender

infectious lymph node

soft moveable tender

spleen


largest mass of lymphatic tissue


white and red pulp


white pulp

lymphatic tissue (lymphocytes and marcophages)

red pulp


removes dead or worn out RBC


storage of platelets


production of RBC during fetal life


lymphocytes


3 classes circulate in blood


T-cell cell mediated immunity


B cell- antibody immunity


NK cells

Lymphopoiesis


lymphocyte production


occurs in red bone marrow


Epidermis


outer layer of skin, keratinized cells


prevent pathogens from coming in

mucous membranes


line body cavities


physical and chemical barrier


nose hairs


trap and filter


cilia upper respiratory track


cough up- lower respiratory track

Lysozyme

breaks down bacterial cells walls, present in saliva, perspiration, nasal secretions and tissue fluid
sebaceous glands
secrete sebum, stop bacteria from growing on skin
kupffer cells

liver, fixed macrophages

alveolar macrophages

lungs
inflammation


vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels


increased permeability


histamine, protaglandins (enhance histaime)

Emigration of Phagocytes


neutrophils predominate in early stages but die off quickly


monocytes transform into macrophages


more potent than neutrophils


pus

pocket of dead phagocytes and damages tissue

antigens

substances reconized as foreign and provoking an immune response
immunocompetence


ability to carry out adaptive immune response


learn vs innate


specificity


memory

antibody actions


neutralizing antigen


immobilizing bacteria


agglutinating and precipitating antigen


enhancing phagocytosis

acquitted immune deficiency syndrome

virus kills tcells

nasal conchae


subdivide nasal cavity


increase surface area and prevent dehydration


pharynx


passageway for air and food


resonating chamber


house tonsils


3 regions


nasopharynx-superior


oropharynx


larngopharynx- inferior


larnx


thyroid cartilage or adams apple


antigens make male voice deeper


epiglottis chewing food

phonation

produce sounds

enunciate

produce words
androgens

make folds thicker and longer

trachea


extends from larynx


divides let and right bronchi


c shaped rings of hyaline cartilage

bronchi


right and left primary bronchus


divide fto from bronchial tree- alveoli (gas ex)




epi pen


epineherine


reaction opens bronchial tree

cardiac notch

heart makes left lung 10% smaller than right

lobes


each lung is divided by 1 or 2 fissures


oblique - both


horizontal - right lung

respritory distress disease

infants aveoli collapse

lung compliance


want high- lungs expand easy


low compliance- resist expansion


atmosphere


nitrogen 78%


oxygen 20%


co2 .04%


water vapor .4%

rate of pulmonary system gas exchange

depends on: partial pressure of gases


surgace area available for gas ex


diffusion distance (want small)

digestion

peristalisis waves of muscle contraction that propel blous through digestive tract
mumps


virus infection of salivary glands


vaccine at 15 months old

esophagitis

inflammation from stomach acids, GERD, spinchter fails to close after food enters stomach
hepatitis

liver inflammation
Helicobacter pylori


bacterium often the cause of ulcers


TX cimetidine, Tagamet and antibiotics

accessory digestive organs


liver


gallbladder


pancrease

salivary glands


parotid


submandibular


sublingual

frenulum

toung tied
salivia


mostly water


.5% immunoglobulin a, lysozyme and salivary amylase (act on starch)

lingual glands


secrete salivary lipase


break down lipids

Teeth


2 sets- deciduous and permanent teeth


enamel dentin


incisors, cuspids (canine) premolars (bicuspids) molars

adult teeth


32 teeth


6 year molars


12 year molars


wisdom teeth


mechanical digestion

lingual lipase


secreted by lingual gland of tongue


act on triglycerides


(not until activated by gastric juices in stomach)


esophageal hiatus

opening in diaphram

hiatus hernia

opening in stomach pushing through

stomach regions

cardia, fundus, body, pylorus

Rugae

folds in stomach

pyloric sphincter

valve small intestine

pyloric stenosis

narrow area of stomach

gastric juices from stomach


hydrochloric acid


pepsin (break down protiens, protein dg starts in stomach)


gastric lipase


mucous

chyme

mechanical digestion mixing waves peristaltic movements create
pancreatic amylase

breaks down starch

proteolytic enzymes

trypsin chymotrypsin break down protiens
pancreatic lipase


break down triglycerides


ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease

liver

produces bile sends to gallbladder


composed of hepatocytes- functional cell secretes bile

hepatic sinusoids


highly permeale blood capillaries


kupfer cells


falciform ligament

divides liver into right and left lobes

gallbladder


sends bile into cystic duct (waits for small intestine)


stores bile

cystic duct

joins common hepatic duct to form common bile duct which enters the small intestine

bile salts


role in emulsification


break down fat


aids in absorption of lipids

villi


finger like pjections


increase absorption


small intestine


most water absorbed


most nutrients absorbed


large intestine

cecum, colon, rectum and anal canal

ileocecal sphincter

between small and large intestine

colon

divided into ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid

cephalic phase


salivating @ food


smell, sight thought or initial taste of foods


prepare mouth and stomach to eat


Urinary system


regulation of:


blood ionic composition, ph, volume, pressure, glucose level


production of :


Hormones


excrete waste

kidneys


bean shaped


retroperitoneal back part of abdominal cavity


right is lower than left bc of liver

renal hilum

indentation where ureter emerges along with blood vessels, lymphatic vesels and nerves

renal capsule

covers the outer surface

perinephric capsule

holds kidney in place surrounds the renal capsure

renal fascia

superficial layer anchors the kidney to surrounding structures and abdominal wall

nephroptosis


floating kidney, urne backs up


aneroxia

nephron

microscopic functional unis of kidney