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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are Gravimetric Methods?

Quantitative methods that are based on determining the mass of a pure compound to which the analyte is chemically related.

What's a colloid?

solids particles that are less than 10^-4 cm in diameter

What's a supersaturated solution?

An unstable solution that contains a higher solute concentration than saturated solution.

What is nucleation?

a process in which minimum amount of atoms, particles and molecules join together to make a stable solid

What is Particle Growth?

When multiple particles collide with each other and they grow and become bigger

What's adsorption?

a process which a substance is held on the surface of a solid

What's absorption?

The retention of a substance within the pores of a solid

Why is a colliodial precipitate not desired?

It's difficult to filter

What's digestion?

A process in which a precipitate is heated in the solution from which it was formed (the mother liquor) and allowed to stand in contact with the solution.

What does digestion improve?

The purity and filterability of colloidal and crystalline precipitates

What are the four types of co-precipitation?

Surface absorption, mixed-crystal formation, occulsion, and mechanical entrapment

What's co-precipitation?

a process which a normally soluble compounds are carried out by a precipitate

What's a mother liquor?

the solution in which a precipitate was formed

What's mixed crystal formation?

a type of co-precipitation in which a contaminant ion replaces an ion in the lattice of a crystal

What's occlusion?

A type of co-precipitate in which a compound is trapped within a pocket formed during pocket growth

When does mechanical entrapment occur?

When crystals lie close together during growth. Several crystals grow together and in so doing trap a portion of the solution in a tiny pocket.

What's a primary standard?

An ultrapure compound that serves as a reference material for titration or another type of qualitative analysis

What's a secondary standard?

A compound whose purity has been determined by chemical analysis.

What does a secondary standard serve as?

The working standard for material for titrations and for many analysis

What is standardization?

Where the concentration of a volumetric solution has been determined titrating it against a carefully measured quantity of a primary or secondary standard or an exactly known volume of another standard solution.

What's a back titration?

a process where the excess of a standard solution is used to consume an analyte is determined by titration of a second standard solution

What's a titration curve?

Plots of concentration related variable against a titrant volume

What's a millimole?

1000th of a mole, often used in titration calculations for its small number being easier to work with

What's a stochiometric ratio?

The ratio of which a chemical in a chemical equation is balanced with (I.e. 1:1, 1:2, 1:5)

What's precipitation?

the process of which a solid phase forms and is carried out in a solution when the solubility product of a chemical is exceeded

What's agglomerate mean?

to collect in a mass or a group

(Ex. The colloid agglomerate)

What's a chelating agent?

An organic compound that contains two or more electron donor groups located in such a configuration that five- or six-membered rings are formed when the donor groups complex a cation.