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9 Cards in this Set

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Primary amine

-has only one carbon atom bonded to the nitrogen atom and, therefore, has an -NH2 group. e.g. Methylamine CH3NH2

Secondary amine

-has two carbon atoms directly joined to the nitrogen atom. All secondary amines have an -NH group.

Tertiary amine

-has a three carbon atom and no hydrogen atoms attached directly to the nitrogen atom. e.g. Trimethylamine.


Reaction of ammonia with halogenoalkane

-if halogenoalkane is mixed with excess concentrated ammonia in aqueous ethanolic solution and left for several minutes, a primary amine is obtained:

C2H5CL+2NH3---- C2H5NH2+NH4CL

-excess of ammonia will yield the secondary amine.

-another condition for this reaction, often quoted in a textbooks and accepted by examiners, is heating the mixture in a sealed tube.


Reduction of nitrile or amide

-a nitrile (e.g. ethanitrile) or an amide (e.g. ethanamide) can be reduced by warming with a solution of lithium tetrahydridoaluminate (III) in dry ether (ethoxyethane), followed by hydrolysis of adduct with dilute acid:


ethanenitrile ethylamine


ethanamide ethylamine


Hofmann degradation of an amide

-if liquid bromine and aqueous sodium hydroxide are added to an amide, an amine with one fewer carbon atoms than the amide is produced, e.g:


The yield of this reaction high.

Chemical reactions:

As base

-the base reaction of amines are similar to those of ammonia.

-ammonia and amine molecule have a lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom that can be used to form a dative covalent bond with an H+ ion.

Chemical reaction:

Reaction with water

Amines react reversibly with water, e.g:


As OH- ions are produced, the solution is alkaline, with a pH of about 11.

This reaction is similar to:

-NH3+H2O------------NH4+ +OH-

Chemical reaction:

Reaction with water continue

-NH3+H2O------------NH4+ +OH-

The C2H5 group pushes electrons slightly towards the nitrogen atom making it more delta- than it is in ammonia. Therefore, ethylamine is a stronger base than ammonia:

-Kb of ethylamine=5.6*10-4 moldm-3

-Kb of ammonia=1.8*10-4 moldm-3