• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

135 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Women's International League for Peace and Freedom

-created after WWI to prevent any other wars

-believed: wars were not effective for solving problems - 60 million casualties not necessary

-Treaty of V is treaty of revenge not peace - will cause future war

-believed economic imperialism is cause of most war and violence - wealthy companies impose their will on less wealthy companies

Women's Peace Union

Started lobbying congress for amendment to constitution requiring a referendum before America goes to war - let Americans vote, not just up to president

Washington's Disarmament Conference

-World leaders met to solve peace questions

-Countries shouldn't make as many bombs, tanks, guns - decrease the size of wars bc fewer weapons.

-Negotiated on limits for naval battle ships and weaponry

Kellog-Briand Pact 1928

-62 countries signed

-condemned recourse to war for the solution of international consequence

-renounce war - talk out problems diplomatically so people don't have to die

Reason why peace pacts didn't work

Money... debt!

America emerged as creditor nation bc they came out of WWI with money - Europe owed US $10billion

US invested in German countries, middle east, and south America

Countries all around the world bought from US

Europeans mad that US profited from war, while they suffered

Germany printed more money to pay debt - huge inflation

Charles Dawes Plans 1924

To solve the problem of debt:

-reduce amount of money Germany had to pay each month by extending payment period

-loans Germany money to address its economic problems

-Identified certain parts of the money owed to allies and forgives them of some debt


World economy collapsed

Europe would never pay America back


Hatred of war

Belief in limited military

America becomes isolated - doesn't worry about Germany's problem with Hitler

Midwest was more isolationist than rest of US - Germans living in US wanted to stay out of German issues

Reasons for being Isolationists

1. Wars damage domestic reform (clean cities, education..)

2. Undermines civil liberties (exec. power increases)

3. Dangerously expands presidential power

4. Disrupts economy

5. Exaggerates pre-existing problems (race, class)

Gerald P. Nye

Believed in anti-war

WILPF used him/his authority to bring issue to congress

NYE Committee Hearings

-Investigated business relations with war

-Couldn't prove arms business relations caused war

-American business helped build German war economy - oil, copper, steel sold to facists countries used to build war machines

Neutrality Acts

FDR's acts tried to prevent US involvement in wars:

1935 - prohibited arms shipments to either side if war were to break out

1936 - forbids loaning money to either side

1937 - Cash & Carry principle - if war breaks out countries involved must pay cash and carry products away in own ships if they wanted to trade with US. - avoids loans and prevents ships from being sunk.

FDR's response

Troubled by aggressiveness of Germany, Italy, and Japan, FDR:

-began to increase weaponry and naval ships

-had bills declined so he could have power to declare war

-wanted neutrality acts removed when war broke out - congress refused

September 1939

WWII officially broke out

Congress repealed neutrality act of 1935 so US could sell weapons to England, France, and Russia

-made Hitler mad

Why did America get involved in WWII?


china was open for everybody - nobody could colonize it

Chiang Kai Shek ousted communist leader and formed great ties with US

Japanese Resentment of US

1. Japan resented western colonialism

2. Resources - Japan was small, based on import-export economy

3. Anti-Japanese laws in US

Manchurian Crisis 1931

Japan ceases part of China called Manchuria because it had coal/iron/timber. Also serves as a buffer from Russia

-US and Europe debate on what to do - don't want to go to war to protect China

Stimpson Doctrine (1932)

US wouldn't recognize any government imposed upon China by force

Sino-Japanese War 1937-1945

China V Japan

Japan started to win, taking more land from China, spreading holdings.

Japan bombed Shanghai killing thousands of people - occupied Nanking - murdered

Rape of Nanking

December 1937

200,000 people raped, tortured, murdered

China pleaded for help from US - America was sympathetic but still worried about America and the Great Depression

America Debates on War


Political, moral, and economic reasons, but no direct attack

US greatly divided on whether to join war

German attacks

Attacked all over Europe, conquered Northern Europe and controlled Paris - France surrendered in July 1940

Germany started bombing England - Americans worried what's next? New York?

FDR prepares for war

Prepares for war but won't fire first shot

Campaign Trail - your boys won't go into foreign war - we will enable British to win - sending weapons and material for England

1941 - US would lend weapons rather than sell to GB, France, and Russia

Atlantic Charter

Churchill and FDR created in 1941 to agree with economic cooperation

FDR said US will support but not be part of war unless attacked

Germany attacks US

Fall 1941

German U-Boat fired torpedoes at USS Greer - FDR said must go to war, congress isn't about it

German U-boat torpedoed Kearny, another US boat, again congress not about it

U-boat sinks Reuben James - congress revised neutrality acts to sell weapons

Liberal democracy v. Fascism/authoritarianism

Liberal: U.S., England, France - believed in fundamental human rights, democratic form of gov.

Fascism: Japan, Germany, Italy - tramped on human rights if they violated what states wanted. Authoritarian regimes backed by military.

Tripartied Pact

September 1940 Germany, Italy, Japan signed

-FDR signed Embargo Act - no more oil (aviation fuel) to the enemy

-Japan knew oil gage was decreasing, had to do something, attacked all over

-US ended all trade with Japan in summer 1941

Pearl Harbor

December 7th, 1941

360 Japanese planes flew outside Pearl Harbor (US military base, Hawaii)

8 US battleships and 180 airplanes destroyed

2500 US soldiers died

50/50 senators voted to go to war with Japan (&Germany, Italy)

Churchill thrilled - US would save allies

Japanese Offensive


Japan takes what it want, Southeast Asia

U.S. doesn't take notice


U.S. enters war, tries to find areas of Japan to attack that would weaken them - didn't win much

Allied Offensive

Bulk of war fought on tiny islands in the pacific

American Firebombs

Bombed Japan, burned everything

Bataan Death March

April 1942

10,000 US and Philippine soldiers died

Increased American hatred for Japanese.

-sparks real fighting between US + Japan in June 1942.


U.S attacks northern island Guadalcanal - small island with oil supplies and air fuel - contained airstrip

-US marines unprepared for jungle warfare

-took airstrip no problem - then met Japanese troops (fearless)

-took 7 months to defeat Japanese on this island

Battle of Midway

June 1942

Midway (US naval base between US and Japan)

-Japanese wanted to destroy base after Pearl Harbor

-Americans anticipated attack - destroyed 4 Japanese aircraft carries (4 out of 6 total)

-important moment - beginning of the end for Japanese war - put Japanese navy at unrecoverable disadvantage.

Four Freedoms by FDR

1. Freedom of speech

2. Freedom of worship

3. Freedom from want

4. Freedom from fear

Alien Registration Act


made it unlawful to advocate the overthrowing of government by force or violence, or join any organization that did so.

-vague enough to include whole ethnic groups

-gov took almost 15,000 Japs, italians etc. and put in concentration camps

-Conscientious rejection - had to be religious pacifists - put to work for non violent war help

Japanese Internment

Japanese Americans didn't want to fight in the way, put into temporary camps, 110-120,000 people.

Potential enemies - race is stronger than present context, stereotyped as sneaky, violent, bad

442nd Unit

Soldiers taken from internment camps to fight for U.S. army - unprepared - 93% casualty rate

US apologizes for Internment Camps

1988 US fed gov admitted they were wrong about Japanese internment and award $20,000 to surviving interns.



Radio/newspaper ads

Uncle Sam's "We Want You" poster (office of war info)

War Production Board

FDR established in 1942

Economy shifted from peacetime to wartime production

Car companies made tanks etc.

-created lots of jobs, huge role in ending the Great Depression

Growth of Economy during WWII

$32billion - $52 billion

corporations doubled profits

wages/salaries increased 135%

Planes were a big part of increased economy

workers were women "Rosy the Riveter"

US emerged wealthiest country out of WWII

Gov didn't tax for war money - borrowed from other countries - huge national debt

Universities worked with gov to make bombs/weapons/medicines

Executive Order 8802

Required employers in defense industry to make jobs available without discriminating race

1.5 million blacks moved from south to north to work in defense industry

Race Failures

Less than half of Northerners believe in segregation in schools

Race riots broke out during WWII

-black soldiers in uniform were murdered

made blacks question why they were fighting for US

Double V Campaign

NAACP launched campaign

Victory against fascism abroad, Victory against prejudice at home

-correlates racism/segregation with Nazi Germany

-successful - 10% joined NAACP

Battle of Stalingrad

1942 -1943

Russia wanted US to help invade France since Germany took over, US said they would be ready in 1942, instead they invaded Italy and Africa - Stalin was furious.

Russia involved in Battle of Stalingrad - turning point of war - Russia wins and starts pushing Germany back.

Peace talks

US and Britain didn't invite Stalin to peace talks after Italy invasion - Stalin not happy.

3 allied leaders met in Iran to talk - Stalin said FDR and Churchill lied.

Stalin and Churchill don't like each other

Operation Overlord

FDR said it was time to enter war

Attack France, defeat Germany, then Russia will help destroy Japan


D Day

June 6, 1944

Battle of Normandy

200,000 troops attack France, caught Germans by surprise

9000 allied troops killed on 1st day

3 weeks - 425,000 casualties

moved inland, liberating France + Belgium

German troops fled eastward

Battle of Bulge

German counter attack in December 1944

-allies eventually pushed Germans back

-last battle for German army

-GB and US came from East, Russia from West - Germany realized war was over

Operation Thunderclap

aerial bombings of German industrial cities

-Feb 3 1945 - attack on Berlin killed 25,000 civilians. targets weren't easy to hit

Germany surrenders

Hitler commits suicide, Germany surrenders May 8th

Iwo Jima

Feb 1945

fighting - objective: obtain mountain

68,000 Americans died, 2000 Japanese died

beginning of the end for Japan

Battle of Okinawa

Island battle in March 1945

killed lots of Japanese

ground warfare became air warfare


March-August 1945

US began bombing cities with firebombs

May 23rd 1945 - Tokyo firestorm, 83,000 civilians died in one night

Spring 1945 Jap army virtually destroyed

Japanese school girls attached bombs to helium balloons to fly over Pacific ocean - landed on US Sunday school, killing 6 people

Atomic Bomb

How to finish the war?

Enola Gey dropped Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima, 130,000 died instantly (Aug 6)

3 days later another bomb on Nagasaki (Aug 9)

5 days later Japan surrendered (Aug 15)

Other options instead of Atomic Bomb

1. Invite media to inhabited island to drop bomb and show what US could do to Japan

2. blockade Japan + continue bombing

3. take up Russia's offer to help

4. Follow up on Japan's peace offerings

Truman rejected these options - too long - dropping bomb is a display of strength


Even though Japan lost - they got what they wanted - Asia for Asians

Europeans left Asia

Colonies get independence - decolonization

United Nations

Established in 1945 to prevent war - peacekeeping run by USA, GB, Russia, and China

-Security Council: USA, GB, Russia, China, France

-General Assembly: all other countries

Goal: to prevent war - veto powers

UN had power to authorize war, League of Nations could fight

Yalta Conference


What would the world look like post-war?

-GB wanted FR in UN, didn't want Soviet Union to have power

-Russia wanted to make Germany pay, wanted control in East. Europe

-US wanted UN, wanted China to be recognized power, wanted Russia to declare war against Japan

Results of Yalta Conference

Stalin got E.Europe, set up Iron Curtain (divided Europe into two parts)

Germany split into 4 zones, each country in charge of reconstructing. East becomes communist (Russia), west becomes democratic (GB + FR)

Russia said they'd fight Japan - never did but wanted rewards

Outcome of WWII

-Creation of Israel (1948)

-Palestine was British colony - Jewish and Muslim wars over Jerusalem

-After war, Israel recognized as a country and Jewish state bc Jews had to put up with so much during the war

-Next day, Arabs attacked - been at war ever since

Truman's reasons for recognizing Israel

1. Jews deserved a homeland

2. 1948 election - wanted Jewish vote

3. wanted another international ally

4. Jesus won't return to earth until temple is restored as Jewish temple

Cold War

Communist/atheist (Russia) vs. Democratic/christian (America)

Will colonies who gain independence become communist or democratic? War over ideologies

Both countries want world dominance

Production + maintenance of nuclear weapons

both countries build such big bombs that everyone's scared to declare war

War Memory

Choosing wat to remember and forgetting about WWII

forget about: internment of japanese, racial treatment, how long it took to enter

Remembering: fought by the brave to destroy the nazis, fought for democracy, most advanced weapons, US generated 1/2 world electricity, owned 2/3 gold.

Transition from Great Depression to Post-war

1940 - 1/2 US lived below poverty, 14% unemployed

1945 - 1% unemployment, 20 million new jobs over next 20 years, middle class doubled, baby boom created

War efforts created civil rights

U.S. economy

-access to raw materials

-access to foreign markets

helped with economic prosperity

Domino Theory

Part of Truman's speech, prominent theory from 1950's to 1980's that if one country fell to communism it would influence its surrounding countries to do the same.

Truman says if US tips in now to help Greece + Turkey, it will protect the spread of communism,

Truman Doctrine


Truman's policy to stop soviet expansion

If a country that is democratic but elects communist official then US will step in to tell them that's not a good idea.

Red Baiting

If you call a political opponent communist, their political career was over

Red Scare/ McCarthyism

Joseph McCarthy (Republican from Wisconsin) - leading anti-communist of the era

-head of FBI for 42 years

channeled peoples fears towards communism

J Edgar Hoover

First director of the FBI

House of Un American Activities Committee

(HUAAC)- created in 1938

Group formed by congress

Investigated and interrogated people who were thought to be related to/took part in communist activities

Korean War


U.S and Russia split Korea in half after WWII

N. Korea communist

S. Korea democratic

June 1950 - communist troops invaded S Korea

US went to war to support containment

-1.8 million US troops sent

Instead of just pushing communist troops back into N Korea, Truman told soldiers to take over N Korea.

China didn't approve, pushed US soldiers back into S Korea and took over Seoul (capital)

Both sides signed agreement to leave country as is, divided

Consequence of Korean War

1. Lead to massive build up of US armed forces and military spending (size of troops tripled)

2. US shouldn't fight a land war in Asia - expensive and high casualty rate

US paid to defeat Vietnam

U.S paid french to help defeat communist, in Vietnam - didn't work.

US sent money and training to S Vietnam to defeat N Vietnam

"New Look"

Eisenhower said we need new look for military:

1. biggest and best atomic bombs

2. Air power

prevent long, expensive, deadly wars

Mutually Assured Destruction

War between US and Russia could mutually destroy the whole world.

War would be stupid

Fidel Castro

Fidel Castro wants Cuba to be Cuba again - communist!

Castro drove out Batista (friends with US)

US concerned about Castro - refused to give loans - Castro turned to Russia for loans, Russia agrees in order to have ally so close to Miami

Castro took all US businesses in Cuba and nationalized them to make them Cuban

Eisenhower broke off relations with Cuba

CIA involvement with Cuba

US can't go to war with Cuba soEisenhower invited CIA to chat.

CIA went to Miami and found Cuban exiles who didn't like Castro - trained + armed exiles to overthrow Castro

JFK elected - back this plan!

Bay of Pigs

April 17th 1961 - Cuban exiles landed in Cuba in Bay of Pigs

-plan was for Cuban people in Bay to join them in pushing Castro out

-Castro's forces met and destroyed exiles - humiliating to JFK

JFK asks military to increase weapons in order to display strength - Russia does the same

Cuban Missile Crisis

Fall 1962

CIA shows JFK all the missiles in Cuba

JFK announced on TV military on high alert & US will turn back any Russian ship

Next 7 days Russian and US diplomats negotiated - Russians agreed to remove missiles

-crisis of mutually assured destruction

Mohammad Mosaddegh, Iran

Iran and US had good relation bc of oil

Iran realized US was making all the money - said enough, it's our oil!

Mosaddegh nationalized all Iranian oil

Mosaddegh was hostile towards Shah who was friendly toward US

CIA in Iran

Eisenhower calls CIA into office 1952 to overthrow Mosaddegh

Aug 1953 Iranian army officers paid for by CIA took Mosaddegh prisoner and restored Shah's power.

US friendly leader in Iran - US companies make money.

Problem: Shah was resented by Iranians because they didn't like US. Overthrew Shah and replace with anti-american regime still in place today

Ho Chi Minh

Wanted Vietnam to be Vietnam, not french colony. 1945 declared independence from France and wants communism

South Vietnam pro-western

Minh creates colony in North, fights French, French not good fighters so US pays for war but doesn't fight.

Eisenhower's fear of domino effect

1950's, believed domino effect would turn all of Asia into communists if N Vietnam becomes communist.

1954 US pays 75% of war.

France says not worth it, signs agreement that N Vietnam is communist.

US pays S.V to fight N.V

CIA gets involved

Ngo Dinh Diem

CIA friends with Diem in Saigon - incredibly corrupt ally.

1958 Diem doesn't allow election to take place for fear of democracy being run over


Ho Chi Minh sends money to south Vietnam to build cells of people called Vietcong - people who are sympathetic to the North living in the South

JFK takes over

JFK increased aid to S Vietnam - wanted to be a strong leader.

Military leader, Maxwell, suggested going in with airstrike bombs.

Problems with Vietnam

1. Vietcong (vietnamese communists)

2. South vietnamese army (ARBM) was a mess - corrupt generals, lack of communication etc.

U.S sent 9000 US advisors and CIA to advise army

1963 leaders of S Vietnam armies murdered Diem, US ally.

November 22nd, 1963

JFK gave a speech saying to keep watch on Vietnam

Shot in the head while leaving the parade by Lee Harvey Oswald, 2 days later Oswald shot by Ruby

Lyndon B Johnson

Took over presidency

White southern democrat and pro civil rights

Couldn't come out strong civil rights activist so theme for the 1964 election became Great Society: end to poverty and racial injustice

believed in domino theory

Gold of Tonkin

August 1964, US naval ship in golf of Tonkin claimed they were fired upon by N Vietnam

Johnson declared war against N.V

Reasons for declaring war

Moral: communism

Political: communism is bad

Economic: protect capitalism/foreign markets

Attack: naval ship

Ended where it began

Fall 1964 Vietnamese said stop fighting and let N.V be N.V and S.V be S.V

US said no!

Exactly where the war ended in 1975

Paris Peace Accords

1973 Peace Treaty in Paris called for US troop removal and Vietnam two nations (N=communist, S=democratic)

End of Vietnam war

1975 N Vietnam invaded South, unified country with communism

Domino theory was wrong, Asia did not fall to communism

Vietnam war was giant disaster - US was furious - sparked the culture of rebellion.

Youth Culture (New Left)

Youth culture believed that American gov. not actually run by "the people", not a true democracy

Urge for liberation - Native americans, gays, lesbians, african americas, women.. liberation from injustice.

Hippies wanted liberation from boring day to day life.

1970 - half of population was under 30.

Students for Democratic Society

Formed in the 60'sto talk about societal frustrations.

Port Curon statement

1962 included criticism of:

undemocratic government, arms race, wars.

human degradation of racial injustice

cold war, threat of bombs

Civil rights and cold war were the big wrongs that SDS were against. Protested against Vietnam war.

Scott Camil

UF student in the marines. Fought in Vietnam 1965-1969.

Reenrolled at UF, got involved in anti-war protests - believed war was immoral

Became visible protestor - watched by the FBI lead by Herbert Hoover. FBI shot Camil at college party, he survived.

Believe it would have been more moral to kill a couple congressmen than all the innocent vietnamese.

Winters Soldiers Investigation

Vietnam soldiers testified what had happened to persuade congress to stop war

Woodstock, 1969

Music in the 60's gave vent to a lot of anger

Jimi Hendrix played at Woodstock (festival with 1/2 million people: hippies, anti-war protestors)

Played star spangled banner in a rocky way, very different from original, to illustrate air of rage.

The Black Freedom Struggle

Hypocritical that blacks would fight for the US then return home and be forced to the back of the bus.

NAACP increased tenfold during WWII

Army made up of 16% blacks

Executive Order 9981


Harry Truman, democratic president, created a committee for civil rights (1946) and said all citizens should have equal access.

Executive Order 9981 ordered armed forces to desegregate. Forbade segregated army.

Solid South

South only voted for Democrats 1865 - 1965 with exception of:

1928 - split on issue of prohibition

1948 - southerners didn't like desegregated army

Democratic party fell apart as some became more interested in racial equality.


Formed in 1948 in response to Truman's executive order.

Lead by Strom Thurmond

State's rights democrat

-fought against integration

-opposed elimination of segregation

-angry at federal gov.

1948 Election

Democrats v. Republicans v. Dixiecrats

Dixiecrats lost terribly

Dixiecrats ended solid south because they were no longer loyal to Democrats - uncomfortable with direction of the party

Brown V Board of Education

NAACP strategy - undo judicial segregation by taking suits to court - Thurgood Marshall, attorney of NAACP:

1954 Earl Warren declared segregation on the basis of separate but equal is unconstitutional - unanimous decisions

"implement with all deliberate speed"

Not Pres. Eisenhower's job to implement new law - who's responsible? Fed or state gov?

Massive Resistance

White southerners reaction

-changed state flags - SC added confederate flag

-1956 - southern states must stand against integrated schools

-Virginia blocked funds to schools if they integrated

-Over 3500 private schools (white only) opened in south between 1954 - 1960

Little Rock, Arkansaw

September 1957

Central High school to integrate

Governor of Arkansaw said this could not happen - the 9 black kids could not go - sent National Guard to prevent them from entering

-kids walked into school - filmed live on TV - stones thrown at them

American became sympathetic, Eisenhower forced to do something - sent army to Little Rock

1961 - only 6% of black students went to integrated schools - 7 years after Brown v. Board


Ran for president in 1960

good looking, came from linear of politicians, from Boston, part of elite group of brokers, catholic (people freaked out - against prohibition)

Needed southern vote bc democrat, knew he wouldn't be elected if he announced he was for civil rights

Announced he would stop communism and poverty

June 11th, 1963

1. Governor of Alabama, George Wallace, stood outside Uni of Alabama: "segregation today, tomorrow, forever" - refused to let blacks into school

2. JFK made speech on TV to address civil rights issue - called congress to pass civil rights bill for equal access to schools, transportation

3. Medgar Evers, civil rights activist and veteran, watched JFK's speech and agreed, shot dead getting out of his car. Shooter found not guilty until case reopened in 1944.


LBJ and congress passed:

Medicare, Medicaid

Environment protection agency

Consumer protection agency

Election of 1964

Goldwater V LBJ

Goldwater: pro military, opposed Great Society and gov involvement with civil rights

White southerners switched allegiance to support Republican party bc they were against civil rights (ended solid south)

LBJ won 61% of pop. vote - biggest ever so far - begins to push civil rights forward


February 1960, Greensboro

Blacks sit at lunch counter in Woolworths, NC.

Peace protest, sparked 31 cities to do sit-ins.

White mobs burned protestors, beat, spat, threw rocks, blacks tried to turn the other cheek (MLK idea)

Freedom Rides

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) 1961organized integrated bus rides to start in integrated town and drive through segregated south

Washington to New Orleans - stopped in Alabama, met with violence, bus bombed, activists beaten.

Stopped in Jackson, Mississippi, and arrested.


Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee gave voice to blacks in civil rights movement


Martin Luther King

April 1963, launched campaign in Birmingham to integrate public facilities

Eugene Bull responded violently

March on Washington

August 1963

"I have a dream" speech

One month later, bomb killed 4 sunday school kids at 16th St Baptist church (place of civil rights activism)

Freedom Summer

Summer of 1964

Voting registration drive - only 1200 Mississippi's registered

Bloody Sunday

March 1965, march from Selma to Montgomery

Met with huge violence

Civil Rights Act 1964

LBJ build coalition to push law through

Reiterated 14th amendment and guaranteed access to education, accommodation, jobs, etc

Voting Rights Act 1965

Enforced 15th amendment

Removed any obstacles preventing the right to vote (literacy tests, poll taxes etc)

Made possible by grass root efforts

Richard Nixon

President 1973, said "the time has passed where every other nations problem is the U.S's"

-Vietnam war coming to an end

-False promise

Believe in self-determination


US associated Chile as threat to US interest

Salvador Allende elect in 1972 - CIA lead a cue of Chilean military to kill Allende, replaced by Augusto Pinochet


US supported Iran and sent missiles, tanks, guns in 1972.

Supported Shah Pahlavi - Iranians didn't, overthrew and replaced with Ayatollah Khomeini

Fall 1979 - Pahlavi comes to US - 3 weeks later crowd breaks into Iranian embassy and demands that Shah returns and put on trial.

Jimmy Carter froze oil trade with Iran, sent military to free hostages (failed)

Ronald Reagan

Elected 1980 bc Americans furious at Carter for letting this happen, hostages still held after 13 months.

Reagan increased military, hostages released. - led to increased terrorism


Elected communist style gov - Sandinistas

Reagan wanted them gone - funded opposition (Contras) who wanted to overthrow gov.

Americans didn't want to be involved

Reagan violated laws and supplied money, weapons, and CIA - Sandinistas lost support, Contras won

Iran-Contra affair

1985 CIA secretly sold weapons to Iran (even though US supported Iraq in Iran/Iraq war)

In return Iran released 7 US hostages

money went through swiss bank then to Nicaragua

Reagan approved on plan - secret plan surfaced 1986 - faced serious charges bc violated congress and negotiated with terrorists

7 leaders went to jail

Fall of Communism

Cold War came to an end in 1991, Russia not communist anymore

Berlin wall came down

No more communism but still military intervention

Sadam Hussain

1991 leader of Iraq attacked Kuwait for their oil because Iraq had huge debt after war. Hussain wanted more - went to Saudi Arabia

George Bush said Kuwait had right to not be overthrown - assembled 30 countries to fight Iraq (Operation Desert Storm)

US sent 400,000 troops to Saudi Arabia to meet Iraq soldiers

Jan 17, 1991: bombing and airstrikes, Feb: ground fighting. 4 days later Iraq surrendered

Iraq war support

Americans supported the Iraq war in contrast to the Vietnam war because only 270 US soldiers died.

Moral reasons aren't enough

Somalian war in Africa, stood by when Rwanda withdrew from fighting, stood by when Rwanda had civil war and 500,000 people died.