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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc
Focuses on discrimination in employment and housing, and abuses in the judicial system.
A court order preventing someone from violating someone else's rights.
Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798
These acts promised heavy fines and imprisonment for those guilty of writing or speaking anything false, scandalous, or malicous against any government official.
USA Patriot Act of 2011:
Civil Rights:
Legal protections against discrimination because of race, religion, ethnicity, or gender.
Fourteenth Amendment:
Amendment that has been used to extend the protections in the bill of rights to actions by state and local governments and by private individual and groups.
Equal Protection
A clause in the fourteenth amendment used to prevent state officials and others from engaging racial or sex discrimination.
Preferred Freedoms
The liberties necessary for a democracy to function
Complete Incorporations:
A judicial position that the entire Bill of Rights was extended beyond the federal government by the Fourteenth Amendment, and thus applies to the individual states.
Zone of Privacy:
Shields individuals from government monitoring of their phones and computers, homes and bedrooms.
Grutter v Bollinger:
Affirmative action case; A student argued that because the University of Michigan admitted less qualified students she was denied a place. The school was trying to increase educational diversity; using race violated white students constitutional right to equal treatment. In June 2003 the law schools affirmative action case was supported as a way of promoting diversity in their student body.
Presumptive Legislation Rationality
The laws dealing with economic issues are routinely approved by the judiciary under this.
Plessy V. Ferguson:
Upheld Louisianas right to require racial segregation in railway cars.
Civil Libertarians
Activist judges who issue decisions in class action suits in which lawyers bring a case to court not only for their individual clients but also on the behalf of everyone in a similar situation
Private Attorneys General:
Organizations created to support the rights of individuals and groups; funded by foundations, wealthy donors, and members' dues. Example: American Civil Liberties Union
Miranda V. Arizona:
The supreme court held that once an investigation by police focused on an accussed person that person has to receive the following warning: You have the right to remain silent, anything you say may be used against you in a court of law, you have the right to be represented by an attorney of your choice.
Gag Rule
preventing antislavery petitions from being receive by Congress.
what about age?
Civil Liberties:
Legal protections against discrimination because of race, religion, ethnicity, or gender
Due Process:
A phrase in the fourteenth amendment used to incorporate freedoms of the bill of rights to cover states actions, including the rights to procedural fairness and impartiality.
Partial Incorporations:
Judicial position that believes only major rights such as the first amendment freedoms, should be included in the Fourteenth Amendment and applied to the states.
First Amendment freedoms
Freedoms of religion, speech, press and assembly.
Affirmative Action
An effort to remove the effects of discrimination by requiring and expanding minority job, admission, and promotion opportunities.
Suspect Classification
A judicial doctrine that laws involving race, religion, or ethnicity wil be subject to close scrutiny by the courts because they are presumed invalid.
Close Scrutiny
Looking at something very carefully
Brown v Board of Education:
The supreme court held that schools segregated by race were unequal and violated the Fourteenth Amendment.
Univeristy of California Regents v Bakke
The Supreme Court upheld the principle of affirmative action, holding that it was a "State interest" to provide for diversity among medical students.
Oncale v Sundowner:
The supreme court declared that the law included sexual harassment even if both parties were men or the same sex.
American Civil Liberties Union
An organization that defends against hysteria of "red scares" and has fought against wiretapping, surveillance, and "Dirty tricks" by law enforcement agencies