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41 Cards in this Set

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fascism

a political philosophy that values nation or race above the individual and promotes a centralized dictatorship

Nazism


[NAHT-sih-zuhm]

the political and economic doctrines of the National Socialist German Workers' Party, which promoted totalitarian government, state control of industry, racial superiority of certain groups, and the supremacy of its leader

Hideki Tojo


[hee-DEHK-ee TOH-joh]

the leader of an Axis power during World War II

Benito Mussolini

was an Italian politician, journalist, and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 until his ousting in 1943. He ruled constitutionally until 1925, when he dropped all pretense of democracy and set up a legal dictatorship.

reparations

something done or given as amends or payment of damages

totalitarian state

a government that attempts to subject the citizen to an absolute state authority

Treaty of Versailles

the treaty ending World War I, which placed blame for the war and demands for financial reparations on Germany

anti-Semitism

hostility toward or discrimination against Jews as a religious, ethnic, or racial group

Auschwitz


[OWSH-vitz]

was a network of German Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps built and operated by the Third Reich in Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany during World War II.

Kristallnacht


[KRIHS-tahl-nahkt]

(a series of coordinated deadly attacks) against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and Austria on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and non-Jewish civilians. German authorities looked on without intervening.

Maidanek


[MIYDN-ehk]

was a Nazi German concentration and extermination camp established on the outskirts of the city of Lublin during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.

refugee

a person who flees to another area, country, or power to escape danger or persecution

xenophobia


[zee-nuh-FOH-bee-uh]

fear and hatred of strangers or foreigners or of anything that is strange or foreign

Allies

the nations, led by Great Britain, the U.S., and the U.S.S.R., that united against the Axis powers in World War II

isolationist

a person who believes that his nation should stay out of world affairs; remain neutral

Lend-Lease

a program to lend equipment and raw materials to help the Allies fight the war in Europe

pacifist


[PA-suh-fist]

a person who is opposed to the use of force under any circumstance

blitzkrieg


[BLITS-kreeg]

German for "lightning war," a new type of warfare used by German forces in World War II in which troops, tanks, and artillery quickly sped across nations

amphibious


[am-FIH-bee-uhs]

able to travel on land or in water

cryptography


[krihp-TAH-gruh-fee]

used extensively during World War II, with a plethora of code and cipher systems fielded by the nations involved. In addition, the theoretical and practical aspects of cryptanalysis, or codebreaking, was much advanced.

habeas corpus


[HAY-bee-uhs KOR-puhs]

the right of a citizen to obtain a legal order written by a court or judge as a protection against illegal imprisonment

Nisei


[NEE-say]

a child of Japanese immigrants who was born in the United States

Guadalcanal


[gwahd-l-kuh-NAL]

During 1942–43 this was the scene of bitter fighting between Japanese and US troops in which the Americans were ultimately victorious.

Pas-de-Calais


[pahd-kah-LAY]

costliest battles of World War I were fought in the region

Hiroshima


[hee-roh-SHEE-mah]

In August 1945, during the final stage of the Second World War, the United States dropped an atomic bombs on this Japanese city.

Hirohito


[hihr-oh-HEE-toh]

Emperor of Japan from 1926 until his death in 1989. He was the longest-reigning monarch in Japan's history.

Nationalism

a philosophy that promotes one nation above all others and values that


nation’s culture and interests over others

The Great Depression

a time of economic decline in the 1930s that included high unemployment


and falling prices

Adolf Hitler

an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party

WWII began when...

Germany invaded Poland.

The U.S. entered WWII because...

Japan launched an air attack in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

Yalta Conference

Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin agreed to discuss forming a new international organization, the United Nations.

atomic bomb

A uranium gun-type bomb used


to quickly end the war in the Pacific without invading Japan

democratic government

a form of government in which the military owes allegiance to the nation, not one particular leader.

Axis powers

those nations the coalition headed by Germany, Italy, and Japan that opposed the Allied Powers in World War II.

Moscow

the capital city of an Allied power during World War II

Dwight Eisenhower

The president during World War II who was the Supreme Allied Commander in Europe and gave the go-ahead for the D-day landings in Normandy

Albert Einstein

wrote a letter to President Roosevelt urging that the United States build an atomic bomb before the Germans could

Allied Powers

those nations allied in opposition to the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey) in World War I

Berlin

the capital of an Axis power during World War II

Franklin Roosevelt

the leader of an Allied power during World War II