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22 Cards in this Set

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barbed wire

barbed wire

twisted wire with sharp barbs used to build fences to control cattle and mark property lines

Great American Desert

Great American Desert

a term the early pioneers and Forty-Niners used to describe the Plains States

Homestead Act

Homestead Act

a law passed in 1862 that offered settlers 160 acres of land for $10

prairie

prairie

a large area of grasslands

three of the primary products produced on the Great Plains

three of the primary products produced on the Great Plains

wheat, cattle, and sheep

obstacles settlers encountered as they moved west

obstacles settlers encountered as they moved west

sod difficult to plow, the temperatures extreme, conflicts with Indians, and the violent storms.

factors that made the cattle business profitable

factors that made the cattle business profitable

ranchers could transport cattle to market relatively cheaply & growing cities demanded more beef

life of a cowboy

life of a cowboy

Cowboy life was hard. The cowboys were isolated and poorly paid. They faced bad


weather, thirst, stampedes, and attacks by Native Americans and rustlers.

diversity of the cowboy population

diversity of the cowboy population

men and women of all ethnic backgrounds

Who was harmed by the farming revolution of the late 1800s?

Who was harmed by the farming revolution of the late 1800s?

The farming revolution hurt the Native Americans and the indigenous wildlife of the


prairie. It also hurt the cowboys and cattle drivers as well as the small-scale farmer.

Why was it hard for Native Americans and new Americans to share the land?

Why was it hard for Native Americans and new Americans to share the land?

Native Americans relied on hunting buffalo herds that roamed freely on the plains.


Farmers and ranchers needed to fence in the land to keep cattle in and keep buffalo out


of their crops. The ways in which the two groups used the land were incompatible.

Chief Joseph

Chief Joseph

Fleeing from the U.S. Army, this courageous Nez Perce leader led his people in a desperate journey toward Canada and freedom.

Legal ways that railroad tycoons financed the construction or railroads

Legal ways that railroad tycoons financed the construction or railroads

Receiving government aid, selling stocks in their companies, and paying low wages to workers

Effects of the railroad over a long period of time

Effects of the railroad over a long period of time

Uniting the nation, providing faster transportation across the country, creation of time zones, and increased westward expansion of settlement.

range

range

open land for grazing cattle

reason for the end of long cattle drives

reason for the end of long cattle drives

New railroad lines across the Great Plains made it cheaper to ship cattle by rail.

new technology of the 1800s that had the greatest impact on cattle ranchers on the Great Plains

new technology of the 1800s that had the greatest impact on cattle ranchers on the Great Plains

refrigerated rail cars

Chisholm Trail

Chisholm Trail

a trail used in the post American Civil War era to drive cattle overland from ranches in Texas to Kansas railheads.

a major challenge facing the builders of the transcontinental railroad

a major challenge facing the builders of the transcontinental railroad

crossing the Sierra Nevada mountains

windmills

windmills

provided water for crops and livestock when limited water was available

McCormick reaper

McCormick reaper

made harvesting large fields of crops much faster and easier.

steel plow

steel plow

made tough prairie sod easier to cultivate