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38 Cards in this Set

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Unitary System of Government
A system of government in which ultimate authority lies within the national government. Education, Police, use of the land are all controlled by the national government. France, Birittian - Practical in countries that face threats of breakaway,
Confederal System of Government
First system of government practiced in America opposite of Unitary System of Government, Made up of a league of independent states, Controls only those powers given to it by the member states . Has only limited power over the states.
Federal System of Government
Power is divided usually by a written constitution between the national & regional government. The national & regional government act directly on the people through their laws.
Delegated Powers or Enumerated Power
Powers specifically granted to the government by the constitution. Includes the power to coin money. Power to set sandards for weights & measures, Power to make naturalization laws. Power to establish new Post Offices.Power to declare war. Power to establish foreign missions.
Elastic Clause or the Necessary and Proper Clause
Power of the national government implied in the powers expressly granted to the National Government. The power to regulate trade. Banned racial descrimination
Inherent Powers
Powers of every independent nation to ensure its survival
Reserved powers
All the powers not given to the national governmen but prohibited by the constitution are given to the states
Police Power
Authorit of th states to make laws for the protection, health, morals, safety & welfare of their people. make laws concerning crimes, contracts, marriage, interstate transport & land use.
Concurrent Powers
Powers held jointly by State & Natinal government. Establish courts, borrow money, tax establish banks & companies.
Prohibited Powers
All the powers which the constitution prohibits to the national government and the state government. I.E. the national government denied the power to impose tax on state exported goods. State governments are not allowes to enter into a treaty with other countries.
vertical Checks & Balances
A practice enfused in the constitution that allows each branch of the government to check the actions of the others.
Horizontal Checks & Balances
Allows each branch of government at the same level to serve as a check to the others in that level.
Interstate Compacts
An agreemnt between two or more states for solving common problems. Serves as a means by which states solve regional problems
The Civil War Amendments
13th, 14th, 15th
13th Amendment
Abolished the institution of slavery completely.
14th amendment
Defined who was a citizen.
15th Amendment
Gave African Americans the right to vote in all elections.
Dual Federalism
A system in which the states & the national Government each remain supreme in their own spheres. System that believes each should not interfere with the other.`
16th Amendment
Imposition of Federal tax.
Cooperative Federalism
Assumes that state & national government should cooperate in solving problems.
Picket Fence Federalism
Tyoe of Federalism in which specific programs & policies involve all levels of government.
Categorical Grants
grants to states or local government for specific programs or projects.
Block Grants
federal programs that grant money to states or local government for general purposes.
Federal Mandate
Any requirement in federal law that forces sate & local government to comply with certain rules.
Devolution
transfer of powers from national to local or state government
Civil Liberties
Personal freedoms of individuals that are protected ny the constitution. Also involve all limits placed against individiuals.
Civil Rights.
Positive actions by the government to protect individuals against arbitrary or descriminatory treatment.
Bill of Rights
1868 Bill of Rights extended to the states.
14th Amendment
Extended Bill of Rights to all the states
Incorporation Theory
The view that most of the protections of the Bill of rights apply through the 14th amendment's due process clause.
Freedom of religion
Guarantees seperation of church & state. guarantees free exercise of religion.
Establishment Clause
Prohibits the establishment of a church that is officially supported by the national government.
Free Exercise Clause
Constrains the national government from prohibiting individuals from practicing the religion of their choice.
Lemon V. Curtzmen
Direct state aid should not be used to subscribe to religious instruction.
Religious Freedom restoration Act.
A law passed by congress requiring national, state & local government to accomodate religious conflict unless they could show compelling proof of a reason to do so.
Prior Restraint
Restraining an action or speech before it is said or done.
Symbolic Speech
A speech act based on action rather than words. Burning of the flag.
Commercial Speech
Advertising statements which increasingly have been given first amendment protection. can be restrained if it contains factual inacurracies.